Awareness, perceptions and acceptance of the Covid-19 vaccine in South-eastern Nigeria 10.55131/jphd/2022/200303

Main Article Content

Joshua Chisom Ogboeze
Christopher Perez Ekiyor
Jude Eguolo Moroh
Tammy George Moroh
Washington Nnaemeka Ezurike
Akanazu Chidinma Onyebuchi
Uchechukwu Madukaku Chukwuocha

Abstract

Effective planning and sustainable implementation of vaccination activities require a good understanding of how much a population is aware, perceives and willing to accept the vaccines. A cross-sectional study was carried out between February 22 to April 14, 2021, which assessed 400 participants to ascertain their level of awareness, perception and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in south-eastern Nigeria. Data was collected using a structured pre-tested questionnaire and analysed using IBM-SPSS statistics version 21. The mean age of the participants was 36.15 years.  About 4% of the participants had tested positive for COVID-19 and 12.5% had a perceived experience of COVID-19 without a test. Overall, 53.5% of the participants had a positive perception of the COVID-19 vaccine, while 55.5% accepted the COVID-19 vaccine. A significant association was not found between awareness and the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine (X 2 = 1.071, p =0.475). No statistical relationship was established between perception of the COVID-19 vaccine and the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine (X 2 =0.024, p = 0.877). Factors including awareness about the vaccine, economic and social status  as well as  high literacy level may have contributed to the acceptance of the vaccine among study participants. Major concerns relating to vaccine hesitancy were related to the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine. There is a need for continuous public health enlightenment and sensitization on vaccine safety, effectiveness, availability and accessibility by involving all stakeholders in the communities in order to achieve a safe population.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Ogboeze JC, Ekiyor CP, Moroh JE, Moroh TG, Ezurike WN, Onyebuchi AC, Madukaku Chukwuocha U. Awareness, perceptions and acceptance of the Covid-19 vaccine in South-eastern Nigeria: 10.55131/jphd/2022/200303. J Public Hlth Dev [Internet]. 2022 Sep. 9 [cited 2024 Apr. 22];20(3):26-42. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/AIHD-MU/article/view/258485
Section
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Joshua Chisom Ogboeze, Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526,Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526,Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Christopher Perez Ekiyor, Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526,Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Jude Eguolo Moroh, Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Tammy George Moroh, Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526,Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526,Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Washington Nnaemeka Ezurike, Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526,Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526,Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Akanazu Chidinma Onyebuchi, Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Uchechukwu Madukaku Chukwuocha, Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526,Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526,Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

References

World Health Organization (WHO). World Health Organization Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) [Internet]. [cited 2020]. Available from: https://covid19.who.int

Madabhavi I., Sarkar M., Kadakol N. COVID-19: A Review. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 2020; 90(2).

Ahorsu, DK., Lin, C-Y, Yahaghai R., Alimoradi Z., Broström A., Griffiths MD., Pakpour AH. The mediational role of trust in the healthcare system in the association between generalized trust and willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination in Iran. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021;18(1):1-8.

Nigeria Center for Disease Control. COVID-19 Nigeria [Internet]. [cited 2021.] Available from: https://covid19. ncdc.gov.ng/

Greenwood B. The contribution of vaccination to global health: past, present and future. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2014;369(1645): 20130433.

World Health Organization. The World report on COVID-19 vaccines [Internet]. [cited 2020.] Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines.

Mark D, Philippe B, Baudouin S, Carlo G, David P. Vaccine impact: Benefits for human health. Vaccine. 2016;34: 6707-6714.

Sachiko O, MeghanLS. Public trust and vaccine acceptance-international perspectives. Hum Vaccines Immunother. 2013; 9(8): 1774–1778.

Claire F. A guide to Global COVID-19 vaccine Efforts [Internet]. [cited 2021]. Available from: https://www.cfr.org/ backgrounder/guide-global-covid-19-vaccine-efforts.

DeRoo SS, Pudalov NJ, Fu LY. Planning for a COVID-19 Vaccination Program. JAMA 2020; 323(24):2458–2459.

Chukwuocha UM, Okorie PC, Iwuoha GN, et al. Awareness, perceptions and intent to comply with the prospective malaria vaccine in parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Malar J 2018;17(1): 187.

Akwataghibe NN, OgunsolaEA,Broerse Jacqueline EW, Popoola OA, Agbo AI, Dieleman MA. Exploring Factors Influencing Immunization Utilization in Nigeria - A Mixed Methods Study. Front. Public Health 2019;7:392.

Murray JL C, Piot P. The Potential Future of the COVID-19 Pandemic Will SARS-CoV-2 Become a Recurrent Seasonal Infection?. JAMA. 2021; 325(13):1249-1250. doi:10.1001/jama. 2021.2828

Nguyen KH, Srivastav A, Razzaghi H, Williams W, Lindley MC, Jorgensen C, Abad N, Singleton JA. COVID-19 vaccination intent, perceptions, and reasons for not vaccinating among groups prioritized for early vaccination—United States, September and December 2020. Am J Transplant 2021;21(4):1650-1656. doi: 10.1111/ ajt.16560.

Sallam M. COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Worldwide: A Concise Systematic Review of Vaccine Acceptance Rates. Vaccines (Basel) Vaccines 9(2):160–173. doi: 10.3390/ vaccines9020160

Kukreti S, Lu MY, Lin YH, Strong C, Lin CY, Ko NY, Chen PL, Ko WC. Willingness of Taiwan's Healthcare Workers and Outpatients to Vaccinate against COVID-19 during a Period without Community Outbreaks. Vaccines (Basel) 2021 12;9(3):246. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9030246.

National Primary Health Care Development Agency. Summary of COVID-19 Vaccination, April 14, 2021 [Internet]. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/NPHCDA

Wang K, Wong EL, Ho K-F, Cheung AW, Yau PS, Dong D, Wong SY, Yeoh EK. Change of Willingness to Accept COVID-19 Vaccine and Reasons of Vaccine Hesitancy of Working People at Different Waves of Local Epidemic in Hong Kong, China: Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys. Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jan 18;9(1):62. doi: 10.3390/ vaccines9010062.

Pilkington V, Keestra SM, Hill A. Global COVID-19 Vaccine Inequity: Failures in the First Year of Distribution and Potential Solutions for the Future. Front Public Health 2022;10:821117. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.821117.

Huang PC, Hung CH, Kuo YJ, Chen YP, Ahorsu DK, Yen CF, Lin CY, Griffiths MD, Pakpour, AH. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory to explain willingness of COVID-19 vaccination uptake among Taiwanese university students. Vaccines 2021; 9(9), 1046.

RW Rogers, R Rogers, BL Cacioppo, LL Petty. Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. Social Psychophysiology: A Sourcebook. Guilford Press: New York, NY, USA. 1983.

Rosenstock IM. Why People Use Health Services. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. 1966;44(3), 94–127

Martin CS Wong, Eliza LY Wong, J. Huang, et al. Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine based on the health belief model: A population-based survey in Hong Kong. Vaccine 2021;39(7)1148–1156.

Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 1991;50(2), 179–211.

Yahaghi R, Ahmadizade S, Fotuhi R, Taherkhani E, et al. Fear of COVID-19 and Perceived COVID-19 Infectability Supplement Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Iranians’ Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccinated. Vaccines 2021;9(7),684.

Nigeria Center for Disease Control. A breakdown of cases by state April 14, 2021. [Internet] [cited 2021]. Available from:https://covid19.www.ncdc.gov.ng

Gypsyamber D, David, D. What is Herd Immunity and how can we achieve it With COVID-19? John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health [Internet]. [Cited 2021 Apr 06]. Available from: https://jhsph.edu/ covid-19/articles/acheiving-herd-immunity-with-covid19.html.

Seale H, Heywood AE, Leask J, Sheel M, Thomas S, Durrheim DN, et al. COVID-19 is rapidly changing: Examining public perceptions and behaviors in response to this evolving pandemic. PLoS One 2020;15:1–13.

Meier K, Glatz T, Guijt MC, Piccininni M, Van Der MeulenM, Atmar K, et al. Public perspectives on protective measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, Germany and Italy: A survey study. PLOS ONE 2020:15(8). doi: https://doi.org/10. 1371/ journal.pone.0236917

Paudel S, Palaian S, Shankar PR, Subedi N. Risk Perception and Hesitancy toward COVID-19 Vaccination among Healthcare Workers and Staff at a Medical College in Nepal. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021;14:2253-2261. doi: 10.2147/ RMHP.S310289.

Islam MS, Kamal AM, Kabir A, Southern DL, Khan SH,Hasan SMM, et al. COVID-19 vaccine rumors and conspiration against theories: The need for cognitive inoculation against misinformation to improve vaccine adherence. PLoS One 2021;16(5): e025165

Sanche S, Lin Y, Xu C, Romero-Severson E, Hengartner N, Ke R. High Contagiousness and Rapid Spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Emerg Infect Dis 2020; 26(7):1470-1477. doi: 10.3201/ eid2607.200282

Lazarus JV, Ratzan SC, Palayew A, et al. A global survey of potential acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Nat Med 2021; 27:225–228.

Malik AA, McFadden SM, Elharake J, Omer SB. Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in the US. EClinicalMedicine 2020;26:100495.

Reiter PL, Pennell ML, Katz ML. Acceptability of a COVID-19 vaccine among adults in the United States: How many people would get vaccinated?. Vaccine. 2020;38(42):6500-6507.

Ekaete AT, Martha O, Azuka A, Andrew O. Willingness to Accept a COVID-19 Vaccine in Nigeria: A Population-based Cross-sectional Study. Central African Journal of Public Health 2021;7(2).53-60. doi: 10.11648/j.cajph.20210702.12.

Detoc M, Bruel S, Frappe P, Tardy B, Botelho-Nevers E, Gagneux-Brunon A. Intention to participate in a COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial and to get vaccinated against COVID-19 in France during the pandemic. Vaccine 2020; 38(45):7002-7006. doi: 10.1016/ j.vaccine.2020.09.041.

Callaway E. Russia's fast-track coronavirus vaccine draws outrage over safety. Nature 2020: 584, 334–335. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-02386-2

Wangdi K, Canavati SE, Ngo TD, et al. Analysis of clinical malaria disease patterns and trends in Vietnam 2009–2015. Malar J 2018;17: 332.