Main Article Content
The use of facemask for the control of the spread of the novel corona virus among the population has been recommended by the health authorities. This is as a result of its effectiveness in the control of various infectious respiratory diseases during past epidemics and pandemics. This observational study was carried out to assess the frequency of use, appropriateness of application, type, and the quality of the used facemasks among the residents of southeastern Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic and to be able to draw inference from this observation on whether facemask usage can aid in controlling the spread of the disease in the study area and the country at large. Using a two-stage sampling technique, a total of 3100 individuals were observed for the type, quality, appropriateness, and frequency of facemasks usage from both rural and urban settings in the study area. Frequency distribution tables were used to categorize and describe the observed variables, Chi-square (X2) test was used to check the association between categorical variables. Among the observed individuals, 46.4% used facemasks. The most common facemask used was cloth mask (28.6%). About 16.0% of the participants correctly used their facemasks. The highest usage was observed in the urban location (49.2%). More people used facemasks in urban areas (p<0.001), in the bank (p< 0.001), in the morning (p< 0.001) among the males (p< 0.001), and among the adolescents (p< 0.001). The observed rate of facemask usage, however, may not be good enough to protect the population against the spread of COVID-19, therefore adequate sensitization on the need for proper use of facemasks by the public should be prioritized.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Similarities and differences with influenza. [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 July 4]. Avialable from: https://www. who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-similarities-and-differences-with-influenza.
Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19):Latest updates on the COVID-19 crisis from Africa CDC. COVID-19[Internet].2021 [cited 2021 June 16]. Avialable from:https:// www.africacdc.org/covid-19/.
Nigeria Center for Disease Control.Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)Update[Internet].2021 [cited 2021 May 17]. Avialable from: https:// ncdc.gov.ng/.
Achaiah NC, Subbarajasetty SB, Shetty RM. R0 and Re of COVID-19: Can we predict when the pandemic outbreak will be contained? Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine. 2020;24(11): 1125–7.
Spouge JL. A comprehensive estimation of country-level basic reproduction numbers R0 for COVID-19: Regime regression can automatically estimate the end of the exponential phase in epidemic data. PLoS ONE. 2021;16:1–14.
Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM, Zhang QQ,Liu XG, Li WT, Li Y.Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020;16(10):1745 - 52.
World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): How is it transmitted? [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 June 12].Avialable from: https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-how-is-it-transmitted.
World Health Organization.All about facemask in the context of COVID-19. [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 June 15].Avialable from: https://www. who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/when-and-how-to-use masks?
Edet CK, Harry AM, Wegbom AI, Raimi O, Fagbamigbe AF, Kiri VA.Facemask Utilization in the Era of COVID-19: Nigeria Experience. International Journal of Tropical Disease and Health. 2020;41(24):1–8.
Kumar J, Katto MS, Siddiqui AA, Sahito B, Jamil M, Rasheed N, Ali M. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of healthcare workers regarding the use of facemask to limit the spread of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Cureus. 2020;12(4):e7737.1.
Tan M, Wang Y, Luo L, Hu J. How the public used face masks in China during the coronavirus disease pandemic: A survey study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2021;115:103853.
Wang C, López-Núñez MI, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, et al. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Physical and Mental Health in China and Spain: Cross-sectional Study. JMIR Form Res. 2021;5(5):e27818.
Beckage B, Buckley TE, Beckage ME. Prevalence of Face Mask Wearing in Northern Vermont in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Public Health Rep. 2021; 136(4): 451-6
Rahimi Z, Shirali GA, Marzieh A, Mohammad J, Mohammadi, Bahman C. Mask use among pedestrians during the CoVID-19 PANDEMIC IN Southwest iran: an observational study on 10440 people. J BMC Public Heal. 2021;21(133):6–9.
Umeha C. NIDS warns against misuse, abuse of facemasks to prevent COVID-19. Independent Newspapers Nigeria [Internet].2020 [cited 2020 March 15].Avialable from:https://www. independent.ng/nids-warns-against-misuse-abuse-of-face-masks-to-prevent-covid-19/.
Ogoina D. COVID-19: The Need for Rational Use of Facemasks in Nigeria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.2020; 103(1):33–4.
Oyeyemi T. Remarks by the SGF/Chairman of the PTF COVID-19 at the National Briefing of Wednesday, 6th May, 2020 in National Briefing on COVID-19 [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Apri1 20]. Avialable from: https://fmic. gov.ng/remarks-by-the- sgf-chairman-of-the-ptfcovid19-at-the-nati.
Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, Tian F, Jin DY, Chen L, Wang M. Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19. Jama. 2021;323(14):1406 - 7.
Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, Solo K, Yaacoub S, Schünemann HJ, et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2020;395(10242):1973–87.
Eikenberry SE, Mancuso M, Iboi E, Phan T, Eikenberry K, Kuang Y, et al. To mask or not to mask: Modeling the potential for face mask use by the general public to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic. Infect Dis Model. 2020;5:293–308.
Viola IM, Peterson B, Pisetta G, Pavar G, Akhtar H, Menoloascina F, et al. Face coverings, aerosol dispersion and mitigation of virus transmission risk. IEEE Open J Eng Med Biol. 2021;2:26–35.
Howard J, Huang A, Li Z, Tufekci Z et al. An Evidence Reviev of Face mask Against Covid-19. PNAS. 2021; 118(4): e2014564118.
Wang G, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Zhang J, Jiang F. Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet. 2020;395(10228):945–7.
Lyu W, Wehby GL. Community use of face masks and COVID-19: evidence from a natural experiment of state mandates in the US. Health Aff (Millwood). 2020; 39(8): 1419–25.
Wong B. Why East Asians Were Wearing Masks Long Before COVID-19. [Internet] 2020 [Cited 2021 June 23]. Available from: https://www. google.com/amp/s/www.huffpost.com/entry/east-asian-countries-face-masks-before-covid_l_5f63a43fc5b 61845586837f4/amp.
Flaskerud JH. Masks, politics, culture and health. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2020;41(9):846–9.
Abrahão JS, Sacchetto L, Rezende IM, Rodrigues RAL, Crispim APC, Moura C, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on public surfaces in a densely populated urban area of Brazil: A potential tool for monitoring the circulation of infected patients. Sci Total Environ. 2021;766:142645.
Colorafi KJ, Evans B. Qualitative descriptive methods in health science research. HERD Heal Environ Res Des J. 2016;9(4):16–25.
Thiese MS. Observational and interventional study design types; an overview. Biochemia Medica.2014; 24(2):199–210.
Emeribeole A, Iheaturu C. Land Use/ Land Cover dynamics and Urban Sprawling Movement(A Case Study of Owerri, Imo State Nigeria). IJREST. 206;3(3):54–60.
Bukhari SA. Sample Size Determination Using Krejcie and Morgan Table [Internet].2020 [2021 February 2]. Avialable from:https:// doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.11445.19687.
Guan W, Ni Z, Hu Y, Liang W, Ou C, He J, Liu L, Shan H, Lei C, Hui DCS. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020;382(18):1708–20.
Ajimotokan O.Nigeria: Buhari signs regulations making use of Facemaskmandatory. This Day News Paper [Internet].2021 [cited 2021 August 5]. Avialable from:https:// www.allafrica.com/stories/20210128274.html.
Abid K, Imran A, Bari Y, Ziadi T, Khambati Z, Younus M, Billah AHB, Khura,B, JabbarA.Adherence of facemask during covid-19 pandemic among south Asian countries. Research Square[Internet]. 2020 [cited2021 July 3]. Avialable from: https//doi.org/ 10.21203/rs.3.rs-113617/v1.
Leffler CT, Ing E, Lykins JD, Hogan MC, McKeown CA, Grzybowski A. Association of country-wide coronavirus mortality with demographics, testing, lockdowns, and public wearing of masks. Am. J. Trop. Med and Hyg.2020;103(6):2400 - 11.
Wang C, Chudziccka-Czupala A, Grabowski D et al.The Association Between Physical and Mental Health and Face Mask Use During the COVID-19 pandemic: A Comparison of Two Countries With Different Views and Practice. Front. Psychiatry 11:569981. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.569981.
Ganczak M, Pasek O, Duda – Duma Ł, Świstara D, Korzeń M. Use of masks in public places in Poland during SARS-Cov-2 epidemic: a covert observational study. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2021. Available from: https:// doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10418-3
Rahimi Z, Shirali GA, Marzieh A, Mohammad J, Mohammadi BC. Mask use among pedestrians during the Covid-19Pandemic in Southwest Iran: an observational study on 10440 people. BMC Public Health.2021; 21(133):6–9.
BoulosMNK.Location-based health information services: a new paradigm in personalised information delivery. Int. J. of Health Geogr. 2003; 2,2. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072x-2-2.
OECD Educational attainment of the labour force. In OECD Education at a glance [Internet].2021 [cited 2021 March 7]. Avialable from: https://www. oecd.org/els/emp/3888221.pdf.
Westlake G, Coall D, Grueter CC. Educational attainment is associated with unconditional helping behaviour. Evol. Hum. Sci. 2019;1:e15. doi: https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2019.16.
Natnael T, Alemnew Y, Berihun G, Abebe M, Andualem A, Ademe S, Tegegne B, Adane M. Facemask wearing to prevent COVID-19 transmission and associated factors among taxi drivers in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town, Ethiopia. PloS One.2021;16(3):e0247954.
Chughtai AA. Effectiveness of cloth masks for protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020; 26(10): e200948.
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, Qiu Y, Wang J, Liu Y, Wei Y. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet.2020;395(10223): 507–13.
Tam M, Wang Y, Luo L, Hu J.How the public use facemasks in China during the coronavirus disease pandemic: a survey study. Int. J Nurs.Stud. 2021;115:103853.
Tam VCW, Tam SY, Poon WK, Law HKW, Lee SWY. A reality check on the use of facemasks during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong. EClinicalMedicine.2020;22:100356.