Perception of youth in East Malaysia (Sabah) towards the Malaysia national covid-19 immunisation programme (PICK) 10.55131/jphd/2022/200116

Main Article Content

Ramli Dollah
Adi Jafar
Eko Prayitno Joko
Nordin Sakke
Mohammad Tahir Mapa
Colonius Atang
Chong Vun Hung
Fionna George

Abstract

As a measure to curb the deadly Covid-19 virus, the Malaysian government has implemented the National Covid-19 Immunisation Programme (PICK) in early February 2021 to achieve herd immunity by February 2022. However, several factors have influenced the success of the programme, including accessibility, the role of social media, religious concerns and a variety of other reasons. Therefore, this paper determines the factors that influence the perceptions of the youth in East Malaysia (Sabah) towards PICK. This study uses a self-administered questionnaire through social media applications. A total of 814 respondents consisting of youths in Sabah aged between 18-40 years have been sampled. The raw data have been descriptively analysed (K-Means Clustering, Mean & frequency) and inferentially examined (Mann-Whitney U Test). The respondents’ perceptions are grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 (54.3%) who exhibited vaccine hesitancy, and Cluster 2 (45.7%), who demonstrated positive perceptions towards the programme. Based on the cluster analysis, this study discovered that most of the respondents in Cluster 1 are inclined to not participate in PICK due to several factors, such as Safety (M=3.25, SD=0.578), Communication (M=3.37, SD=0.441), Psychology (M=3.40, SD=0.568) and Milieu (M=3.32, SD=0.545). The cluster analysis is important to determine different patterns of perceptions of youth in Sabah. This paper argues that if vaccine hesitancy, as indicated in the cluster 1 is not properly addressed, the government’s target to achieve herd immunity will not be successful. Apparently, information issues and management through the mainstream media are extremely important, especially in handling critical matters. As a result, there is a need to revisit the mainstream media's role and determine the causes that contribute to the youths’ rejection of government-sponsored initiatives. The findings will be useful for the government so as to implement the necessary policies, adjustments and improvements to future health regulations or campaigns, especially in addressing issues of misinformation related to health management in the digital era.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Dollah R, Jafar A, Prayitno Joko E, Sakke N, Tahir Mapa M, Atang C, Vun Hung C, George F. Perception of youth in East Malaysia (Sabah) towards the Malaysia national covid-19 immunisation programme (PICK): 10.55131/jphd/2022/200116. J Public Hlth Dev [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 31 [cited 2024 Apr. 16];20(1):203-17. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/AIHD-MU/article/view/254518
Section
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Ramli Dollah, International Relations Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

International Relations Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Adi Jafar, Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Eko Prayitno Joko, History Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

History Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Nordin Sakke, Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Mohammad Tahir Mapa, Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Colonius Atang, Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Chong Vun Hung, Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Fionna George, Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Geography Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

References

Elengoe A. COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia. Osong public health and research perspectives. 2020;11(3), 93-100.

Locatelli I, Trächsel B, Rousson V. Estimating the basic reproduction number for COVID-19 in Western Europe. PLoS ONE 2021;16(3): e0248731. doi: https://doi.org/10. 1371/journal.

World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Dashboard [Internet]. 2021 Jul. 14. [Cited 2021 Jul. 17] Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

Jafar A, et. al. Perceptions of urban poor with B40 status on the impact of the implementation of Movement Control Order (MCO) by employment sector: A case study of Kota Kinabalu City, Sabah, Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government. 2021;27(2): 3603- 3618

Edwards B, Biddle, N, Gray, M, Sollis, K. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and resistance: Correlates in a nationally representative longitudinal survey of the Australian population. PLoS ONE 2021;16(3): e0248892. doi: https:// doi.org/10.1371/journal.

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Herd immunity, lockdowns and COVID-19 [Internet]. 2020 December 31 [Cited 2021 April 27] Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/ q-a-detail/herd-immunity-lockdowns-and-covid-19

Rémy, V, Largeron, N, Quilici, S, Carroll, S. The economic value of vaccination: Why prevention is wealth. Journal of Market Access & Health Policy 2015;3(1). doi: 10.3402/ jmahp.v3.29284.

Le, TT, Andreadakis Z, Kumar A, Román RG, Tollefsen S, Saville M, Mayhew S. The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2020;19(5):305-306. doi: 10.1038/d41573-020-00073-5.

Fine P, Eames K, Heymann DL, “Herd immunity”: A rough guide. Clin. Infect. 2011;52(7): 911-916

Marcec R., Majta M, & Likic R. Will vaccination refusal prolong the war on SARS-CoV-2? Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2021;97: 143–149.

Bernama. Khairy tells why vaccine supplies have been slow. Free Malaysia Today [Internet]. 2021 June 21 [Cited 2021 June 24] Available from: https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2021/06/21/khairy-tells-why-vaccine-supplies-have-been-slow/.

Coyne-Beasley T, et al. COVID-19 Vaccination of adolescents and young adults of color: Viewing Acceptance and Uptake with a health equity Lens. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2021;68(5): 844–846.

Bernama. Many fail to show up for their vaccination appointment. Malaysia Reserve [Internet]. 28 May 2021 [Cited 2021 June 07]. Available from: https://themalaysianreserve.com/2021/05/28/many-fail-to-show-up-for-their-vaccination-appointment/.

Sonawane K, Troisi CL, Deshmukh AA. COVID-19 vaccination in the UK: Addressing vaccine hesitancy. The Lancet Regional Health - Europe. 2021;1: 100016

Đorđević JM, Mari S, Vdovića M, Milošević A. Links between conspiracy beliefs, vaccine knowledge, and trust: Anti-vaccine behavior of Serbian adults. Social Science & Medicine. 2021;277: 113930

Hornsey MJ, Lobera J, Díaz-Catalán C. Vaccine hesitancy is strongly associated with distrust of conventional medicine and only weakly associated with trust in alternative medicine. Social Science & Medicine. 2020;255: 1-6

Prime Minister Office. National COVID-19 Immunisation programme [Internet]. 2021 February 24. [Cited 2021 February 27]. Available from: https://www.pmo.gov.my/national-covid-19-immunisation-programme/

The Strait Times. Malaysia maintains target of vaccinating 80% of population by Feb 2022 despite doubts [Internet]. 2021 Mar. 9 [Cited 2021 May 21]. Available from: https://www. straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/malaysia- maintains-herd-immunity-goal-by-early-next-year-despite-concerns-over-target,

Jafar A, et. al. Keberkesanan Program Imunisasi COVID-19 Kebangsaan di Malaysia Timur (Effectiveness of the National COVID-19 Immunisation Program in East Malaysia). Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH). 2021;6(7): 1-11

Perimbanayagam K. Adham: Malaysia's healthcare would have collapsed by June 5 if MCO 3.0 was not imposed. New Straits Times [Internet]. 2021 June 3 [Cited 2021 July 11]. Available from: https://www.nst. com.my/news/nation/2021/06/695547/adham-malaysias-healthcare-would-have-collapsed-june-5-if-mco-30-was-not.

FMT Reporter. Health systems on the brink of collapse, says DG., Free Malaysia Today [Internet]. 2021 July 7. [Cited 2021 July 14]. Available from: https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2021/07/07/health-systems-on-the-brink-of-collapse-says-dg/.

JKJAV. The special committee for ensuring access to covid-19 vaccine supply. National Covid-19 Immunisation Programme [Internet]. 2021 June 13 [Cited 2021 June 13]. Available from: https://www. vaksincovid.gov.my/pdf/National_COVID-19_Immunisation_Programme. pdf.

JKJAV. The special committee for ensuring access to covid-19 vaccine supply. National Covid-19 Immunisation Programme [Internet]. 16 July 2021 [Cited 2021 July 16]. Available from: https://www. vaksincovid.gov.my/pdf/National_COVID-19_Immunisation_Programme. pdf.

FMT Reporter. Another record high 11,618 Covid-19 cases, Free Malaysia Today [Internet]. 14 July 2021 [Cited 2021 July 14]. Available from: https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2021/07/14/another-record-high-with-11618-covid-19-cases/

Nambiar P. Expect 20,000 cases a day in next 2 weeks, warns virologist. Free Malaysia Today [Internet]. 14 July 2021 [Cited 2021 July 14]. Available from: https://www.freemalaysiatoday. com/category/nation/2021/07/14/expect-20000-cases-a-day-in-next-2-weeks-warns-virologist/.

Fang X, Gill S, Talib T. Political participation of minority youth in Malaysia, Malaysian Journal of Youth Studies. 2017;16: 117-127

United Nations. Who are the youth? [Internet]. 2018 [Cited 2021 October 28]. Aviable from: https://www. un.org/en/global-issues/youth

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The missing peace: independent progress study on youth, peace and security. UNFPA & PBSO. 2018

African Youth Charter [Internet]. 2006 July 2 [Cited 2021 October 29]. Avaible from: http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/african_youth_charter.html

Dollah R, et. al. The role of youth and GE14 in Sabah: A case study in P. 188 Silam. Jurnal Kinabalu. 2018;GE Special edition: 319-319.

The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) Malaysia. Situation analysis of adolescents in Malaysia. UNICEF. 2018

Malaysiakini. M'sian Youth Council: Acceptable 'youth' age limit should be 35, not 30 [Internet]. 2019 July 3 [Cited 2021 November 1]. Available from: https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/482181

Mohd Fauzi Fadzil. Merungkai kembali isu had umur belia di Malaysia (Resolving the issue of youth age limit in Malaysia) [Internet]. 2020 August 21 [Cited 2021 November 1] Available from: https://belia.org.my/wp/2020/ 08/21/merungkai-kembali-isu-had-umur-belia-di-malaysia/.

Abdullah K, Benny G, Don Y, Fauzee O, & Damin A. Malaysian youth’s perspective towards ASEAN community. Malaysian Journal of Youth Studies. 2017;16: 2180-1649.

Saleh Y. The support pattern of young voters before the 14th general election in Malaysia. Geografia: Malaysian Journal of Society and Space. 2020;16(1): 80-94

Yan H. 10 reasons why young, healthy people need to get vaccinated against Covid-19, CNN [Internet]. 2021 May 19 [Cited 2021 June 10]. Available from: https://edition.cnn.com/2021/ 05/05/health/young-people-covid-vaccine/index.html

FMT Reporters. Serious Covid infections on the rise among young people. Free Malaysia Today [Internet]. 2021 July 19 [Cited 2021 July 19]. Available from https://www. freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2021/07/19/serious-covid-infections-on-the-rise-among-young-people/

Adam M. Sample size determination in survey research. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports. 2020;26(5): 90-97, JSRR.58400

Department of Statistics Malaysia. Population and housing census of Malaysia [Internet]. 2021 [Cited 2021 April 25]. Available from: https://www. mycensus.gov.my/index.php/ms/125-newsletter-infographics/1646-scdp-sabah.

Jafar A, Othman Z, Sakke N, Dollah R, Joko E, Rahim, S. Understanding youth political demand based on demographic patterns in Malaysia: An overview of parochialism and development in the Sabah state election, Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues. 2021;24(1S): 1-17

Morissette L, & Chartier S. The k-means clustering technique: General considerations and implementation in Mathematica. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology. 2013;9(1): 15-24.

Madhulatha T. An overview on clustering methods. arXiv preprint arXiv. 2012; 1205.1117.

Rousseeuw P. Silhouettes: a graphical aid to the interpretation and validation of cluster analysis. Journal of computational and applied mathematics. 1987;20: 53-65.

Jamil A. Culture of change among teachers in schools: An evaluation. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. National University of Malaysia. 2001

Du F. et. al. The determinants of vaccine hesitancy in China: A cross-sectional study following the Changchun Changsheng vaccine incident. Vaccine. 2020;38(47):7464-7471

Abu-Farha R, Mukattash T, Itani R, Karout S, Khojah HMJ, Al-Mahmood AA, Alzoubi KH. Willingness of Middle Eastern public to receive COVID-19 vaccines. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2021.05.005

Troiano G, Nardi A. Vaccine hesitancy in the era of COVID-19. Public Health. 2021;194: 245-251

Klassen AC. Formative research to address vaccine hesitancy in Tajikistan. Vaccine. 2021;39(10): 1516-1527

Gentile A, et. al. Vaccine hesitancy in Argentina: Validation of WHO scale for parents. Vaccine 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.06.080

Lazarus JV, Ratzan SC, Palayew A, Gostin LO, Larson HJ, et. al. A global survey of potential acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Nature medicine 2021;27(2): 225-228. doi: https://doi. org/10.1038/s41591-020-1124-9

Coustasse A, Kimble C, & Maxik K. COVID-19 and Vaccine Hesitancy: A Challenge the United States Must Overcome. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management. 2021;44(1): 71-75

Griffith J, Marani H, Monkman H. COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada: Content Analysis of Tweets Using the Theoretical Domains Framework. J Med Internet Res. 2021;23(4):e26874. doi: 10.2196/ 26874

Paul E, Steptoe A, Fancourt F. Attitudes towards vaccines and intention to vaccinate against COVID-19: Implications for public health communications. The Lancet Regional Health - Europe. 2021;1: 100012

Paris C, Bénézit F, Geslin M, Polard E, Baldeyrou M. et. al. Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers. Infectious Diseases Now 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idnow.2021.04.001

Qunaibi E, Basheti I, Soudy M, Sultan I. Hesitancy of Arab healthcare workers towards COVID-19 Vaccination: A Large-Scale Multinational Study. Vaccines. 2121;9(5): 1-13

MCMC. Don’t Believe Fake News About Covid-19 Vaccines. Ministry of Communication and Multimedia Malaysia [Internet]. 2021 May 11 [Cited 2021 May 27]. Available from: https://www.kkmm.gov.my/en/public/news/18938-don-t-believe-fake-news-about-covid-19-vaccines

Aizat S. Doctor fined RM5,000 for publishing fake vaccine news. NST [Internet]. 2021 June 23 [Cited 2021 June 24]. Available from: https://www. nst.com.my/news/crime-courts/2021/ 06/701548/doctor-fined-rm5000-publishing-fake-vaccine-news.

Ball P. Anti-vaccine movement could undermine efforts to end coronavirus pandemic, researchers warn. Nature 2020;581(7808):251. doi: 10.1038/ d41586-020-01423-4.

Tollefson J. The race to curb the spread of COVID vaccine disinformation. Nature [Internet]. 2021 Apr 16. Available from: https://www.nature. com/articles/d41586-021-00997-x

Nor Fazlina AR. Penghasut antivaksin boleh dikenakan tindakan undang-undang (Anti-vaccine instigators can be prosecuted). Berita Harian [Internet]. 2021 May 30 [Cited 2021 July 10]. Available from: https://www. bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2021/05/822327/penghasut-antivaksin-boleh-dikenakan-tindakan-undang-undang.

Schuldt L. The rebirth of Malaysia’s fake news law – and what the NetzDG has to do with it [Internet]. [Cited 2021 13 April]. Available from: https:// verfassungsblog.de/malaysia-fake-news/

Patten D, Green A, Bown D, Russell C. Covid-19: Use social media to maximise vaccine confidence and uptake. BMJ 2021;26; 372:n225. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n225.