Relationship between physical strength measurements and anthropometric variables: multivariate analysis 10.55131/jphd/2022/200111

Main Article Content

Biswanath Malakar
Subrata Kumar Roy
Baidyanath Pal


Muscular/ physical strength are fundamental in order to satisfy basic needs for survival and productivity, especially among labourer populations in developing countries. Anthropometric variables found to be one of the key determinants of strength; however, the overall relationship between physical body dimension and strength were yet to be explored. Aim of the study was to explore the relationship between strength and anthropometric variables.

Crosssectional data on strength (handgrip and back strength) and anthropometric measurements were taken from 536 healthy adult Santal labourers (Male=251, Female=285) of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. Statistical analysis including Pearson’s correlation and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were used.

Strength measurements negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with most of anthropometric measurements. CCA between strength and anthropometry were 0.765 (p<0.001, explained 85.53% total variance) and 0.611 (p<0.001, explained 71.41% total variance) for males and females respectively. Cross-loading value of CCA indicates fat-free-mass, forearm circumference and weight for male and fat-free mass, chest circumference and wrist breadth for female were most important predictors of strength.

The CCA model indicate that fat-free mass, forearm circumference, weight, chest circumference and wrist breadth were the most important anthropometric variables related to overall strength measurements of Santal labourer population. However, further researches require for generalizing this model. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Malakar B, Kumar Roy S, Pal B. Relationship between physical strength measurements and anthropometric variables: multivariate analysis: 10.55131/jphd/2022/200111. J Public Hlth Dev [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 30 [cited 2024 Apr. 22];20(1):132-45. Available from:
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Biswanath Malakar, Department of Anthropology, Govt. General Degree College, Singur, India

Department of Anthropology, Govt. General Degree College, Singur, India

Subrata Kumar Roy, Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, India

Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, India

Baidyanath Pal, Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, India

Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, India


Malina RM. Anthropometric correlates of strength and motor performance. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1975; 3: 249-74.

Booth M. Assessment of physical activity: an international perspective. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2000; 71s: 114-20.

World Health Organization. Global strategy on occupational health for all: the way to live at work. Geneva: World Health Organization [Internet]. 1995. Available from: iris/bitstream/handle/10665/36845/WHO_OCH_95.1.pdf?ua=1.

Stiff M. Biomechanical foundations of strength and power training. In: Zatsiorsky V, editor. Biomechanics in Sport. London: Blackwell Scientific Ltd. 2001.

Macaluso A, de Vito G. Muscular strength, power and adaptations to resistance training in older people. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004; 91: 450-72.

Norman K, Stobaus N, Gonzalez MC, Schulzke JD, Pirlich M. Handgrip strength: outcome predictor and marker of nutritional status. Clin Nutr. 2011; 30: 135-42.

Lindle RS, Metter EJ, Lunch NA, Fleg JL, Fozard JL, Tobin J, Roy TA, Hurley BF. Age and gender comparisons of muscle strength in 654 women and men aged 20-93 yr. J Appl Physiol. 1997; 83: 1581-87.

Leong DP, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, Kutty VR, Lanas F, Hui C, Quanyong X, Zhenzhen Q, Jinhua T, Noorhassim I, et al. Reference ranges of handgrip strength from 125,462 healthy adults in 21 countries: a prospective urban rural epidemiologic (PURE) study. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016; 7: 535-46.

Incel NA, Ceceli E, Durukan PB, Erdem HR, Yorgancioglu ZR. Grip strength: effect of hand dominance. Singapore Med J. 2002; 43: 234-37.

Tiainen K, Sipila S, Kauppinen M, Kaprio M, Rantanen T. Genetic and environmental effects on isometric muscle strength and leg extensor power followed up for three years among older female twins. J Appl Physiol. 2009; 106: 1604-10.

Jeune B, Skytthe A, Cournil A, Greco V, Gampe J, Berardelli M, Andersen-Ranberg K, Passarino G, Debenedictis G, Robine JM. Handgrip strength among nonagenarians and centenarians in three European regions. J Gerontol. 2006; 61: 707-12.

Koley S, Singh AP. An association of dominant hand grip strength with some anthropometric variables in Indian collegiate population. Anthropol Anz. 2009; 67: 21-28.

Roy SK, Pal B. Factors influencing back strength and the changes due to age of the Oraon agricultural labourers of Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal. Int J Anthropol. 2001; 16: 263-73.

Leyk D, Gorges W, Ridder D, Wunderlich M, Ruther T, Sievert A, Essfeld D. Handgrip strength of young men, women and highly trained female athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007; 99: 415-21.

Innes E. Handgrip strength testing: A review of the literature. Aust Occup Ther J. 1999; 46: 120-40.

Broadwell DK, Darcey DJ, Hudnell HK. Otto DA, Boyes WK. Work‐site clinical and neurobehavioral assessment of solvent‐exposed microelectronics workers. Am J Ind Med. 1995; 27: 677-98.

Taekema DG, Gussekloo J, Maier AB, Westendrop RG, de Craen AJ. Handgrip strength as a predictor of functional, psychological and social health. A prospective population-based study among the oldest old. Age Ageing. 2010; 39: 331-37.

Phillips P. Grip strength, mental performance and nutritional status as indicators of mortality risk among female geriatric patients. Age Aging 1986; 15: 53-56.

Gale CR, Martyn CN, Cooper C, Sayer AA. Grip strength, body composition and mortality. Int J Epidemiol. 2007; 36: 228-35.

Flood A, Chunq A, Parker H, Kearns V, O’Sullivan TA. The use of handgrip strength as a predictor of nutrition status in hospital patients. Clin Nutr. 2014; 33: 106-14.

Guerra RS, Fonseca I, Pichel F, Restivo MT, Amaral TF. Handgrip strength cut-off values for under-nutrition screening at hospital admission. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014; 68: 1315-21.

Roy SK. Factors affecting the work productivity of Oraon Agricultural labourers of Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2002; 117: 228-35.

Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E. Grip strength and bone mineral density in older women. J Bone Miner Res. 1994; 9: 45-51.

Fuster V, Jerez A, Ortega A. Anthropometry and strength relationship: male-female differences. Anthropol Anz. 1998; 56: 49-56.

Chandrasekaran B, Ghosh A, Prasad C, Krishnan K, Chandrasharma B. Age and anthropometric traits predict handgrip strength in healthy normals. J Hand Microsurg. 2010; 2: 58-61.

Koley S, Kaur S. Correlations of hand grip strength in selected hand-arm anthropometric variables in Indian interuniversity female volleyball players. Asian J Sports Med. 2011; 2: 220-26.

Foo LH. Influence of body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical activity on total body and forearm bone mass in Chinese adolescent girls. British J Nutr. 2007; 98: 1281-87.

Chatterjee S, Chowdhuri BJ. Comparison of grip strength and isometric endurance between the right and left hands of men and their relationship with age and other physical parameters. J Hum Ergol. 1991; 20: 41-50.

Koley S, Jha S, Sandhu JS. Study of back strength and its association with selected anthropometric and physical fitness variables in inter-university hockey players. Anthropologist 2012; 14: 3593-69.

Schaik P, Peng Y, Ojelabi A, Ling J. Explainable statistical learning in public health for policy development: the case of real-world suicide data. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2019; 19: 152-165.

Bisai S, Saha KB, Sharma RK, Muniyandi M, Singh N. An overview of tribal population in India. Tribal Health Bull. 2014; 20s: 1-126.

Mukherjea C. The Santal. Calcutta (India): Oriental Press Private Ltd. 1962.

Weiner JS, Lourie JA. Practical Human Biology. London: Academic Press. 1981.

Sen RN, Banerjee S. Studies on the determination of body fat in Indians. Indian J Med Res. 1958; 46: 556-560.

Shetty SC, Parakandy SG, Nagaraja S. Influence of various anthropometric parameters on handgrip strength and endurance in young males and females. Int Biol Med Res. 2012; 3: 2153-57.

Walankar P, Verma C, Mehta A. Study of handgrip strength in Indian population. Int J Health Sc Res. 2016; 6: 162-66.

Molenaar HM, Selles RW, Zuidam JM, Willemsen SP, Stam HJ, Hovius SER. Growth diagrams for grip strength in children. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009; 468: 217-23.

Cohen DD, Voss C, Taylor MJD, Stasinopoulos DM, Delextrat A, Sandercock GRH. Handgrip strength in English schoolchildren. Acta Paediatr. 2010; 99: 1065-72.

Kuh D, Hardy R, Blodgett JM, Cooper R. Developmental factors associated with decline in grip strength from midlife to old age: a British cohort study. BMJ Open 2019; 9:e025755. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025755.

Roy SK, Pal B. Anthropometric and physiological traits: age changes among the Oraon agricultural labourers of Jalpaiguri district, Northern West Bengal, India. Anthrop Anz. 2003; 61: 445-60.

Kaur N, Koley S. An association of nutritional status and handgrip strength in female labourers of north India. Anthropologist. 2017; 12: 237-43.

Bandyopadhyay A. Body composition and hand grip strength in male brick-field workers. Malays J Med Sci. 2008; 5: 31-6.

Sett M, Sahu S. Anthropometric characteristics and evaluation of nutritional status amongst female brick field workers of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India. Homo. 2016; 67: 235-44.

Malakar B, Roy SK. Comparison of selected anthropometric traits of two Santal occupational groups of Birbhum district, West Bengal. In: Readings in Biological Anthropology. (Eds.) Ghosh S, Limbu DK. New Delhi: BR Publishing Corporation. 2018.

Chilima DM, Ismail S. Nutrition and handgrip strength of older adults in rural Malawi. Pub Health Nutr. 2001; 4: 11-7.

Pieterse S, Manandhar M, Ismail S. The association between nutritional status and handgrip strength in older Rwandan refugees. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002; 56: 933-39.

Rantanen T, Masaki K, Foley D, Izmirlian G, White L, Guralanik JM. Grip strength changes over 27 year in Japanese-American men. J Appl Physiol. 1998; 85: 2047-53.

Bassey EJ, Harries UJ. Normal values for handgrip strength in 920 men and women aged over 65 years, and longitudinal changes over 4 years in 620 survivors. Clin Sci 1993; 84: 331-37.

Rosenberg IH. Sarcopenia: origins and clinical relevance. J Nutr. 1997; 127s: 990-91.

Chen L, Nelson DR, Zhao Y, Cui Z, Johnston JA. Relationship between muscle mass and muscle strength, and the impact of co-morbidities: a population-based cross-sectional study of older adults in the United States. BMC Geriatr. 2013; 13: 74.

Alahmari KA, Silvian SP, Reddy RS, Kakaraparthi VN, Ahmad I, Alam MM. Hand grip strength determination for healthy males in Saudi Arabia: A study of the relationship with age, body mass index, hand length and forearm circumference using a hand-held dynamometer. J Int Med Res. 2017; 45: 540-48.

Lefevre J, Dufour AB, Beunen G, Claessens AL. Relationship of motor performance of adult men to anthropometry: A multivariate analysis. Am J Hum Biol. 1993; 5: 351-59.

Hossain MG, Zyroul R, Pereira BP, Kamarul T. Multiple regression analysis of factors influencing dominant handgrip strength in an adult Malaysian population. J Hand Surg Eur. 2012; 37: 65-70.

Ibegbu AO, Baita MB, Hamman WO, Emmanuel U, Musa SA. Evaluation of the relationship between handgrip strength with some anthropometrics among Nigerian secondary school students. Anthropologist. 2014; 17: 921-27.

More SH, Vyavahare RT. Anthropometric and grip strength data of agricultural workers for marathwada region of Maharashtra (India). Int J App Eng Tech. 2014; 4:148-53.

Roberts DF, Provins KA, Morton RJ. Arm strength and body dimensions. Hum Biol. 1959; 31: 334-43.

Rice VJ, Williamson TL and Sharp M. Using anthropometry and strength values to predict grip strength. Adv Occup Ergon Saf. 1998; 2: 378-81.

Li K, Hewson DJ, Duchene J, Hogrel JY. Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference. Man Ther 2010;15: 579-85.

Jurimaea T, Hurbob T, Jurimaea J. Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in pre-pubertal children. Homo. 2009; 60: 225-38.

de Souza MA, de Baptista CR, Benedicto MMB, Pizzato TM, Mattiello-Suerzut C. Normative data for handgrip strength in healthy children measured with a bulb dynamometer: a cross-sectional study. Physiotherapy. 2014; 100: 313-18.

Ravisankr P, Madanmohan, Kviraja U, Prakash ES. Correlation between body mass index and blood pressure indices, handgrip strength and hand endurance in underweight, normal weight and overweight adolescents. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005; 49: 455-61.

Lad UP, Satyanarayana P, Lad SS, Siri CC, Kumari R. A study on the correlation between the body mass index (BMI), the body fat percentage, the handgrip strength and the handgrip endurance in underweight, normal weight and overweight adolescents. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013; 7: 51-54.