Main Article Content
Flight safety represents an important area of research, as it is concerned with minimising risks for passengers. Videos are a potential medium for effectively spreading flight safety information and raising awareness among first-time flyers. However, the literature concerning the characteristics of videos that contributed to the effective conveyance of flight safety information is limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of slow-paced safety instruction videos in conveying flight safety information to young first-time flyers. In addition, it sought to establish the moderating role of gender in this relationship. The experiment was conducted in a school with 128 student volunteers aged 14–16 years. They were required to solve the pre-test first, after which they were divided into two groups matched by pre-test score and previous flight experience. Subsequently, the experimental group was exposed to the flight safety video while the control group watched a fun video of the same length. The results confirmed the effectiveness of the slow-paced video as a flight safety information medium, regardless of the gender of participants, implying its relevance for the further development of (flight safety) educational videos.
Howell C. What is aviation safety? [Internet]. [Cited 2020 October 20]. Available from: http://aviation safetyblog.asms-pro.com/blog/what-is-aviation-safety
Seneviratne D, Molesworth BR. Employing humour and celebrities to manipulate passengers’ attention to pre-flight safety briefing videos in commercial aviation. Saf Sci. 2015; 75(1): 130–135.
Molesworth BR. Examining the effectiveness of pre-flight cabin safety announcements in commercial aviation. Int J Aviat Psychol. 2014; 24(4): 300–314.
Baker SP, Brady JE, Shanahan DF, and Li G. Aviation-related injury morbidity and mortality: Data from U.S. health information systems. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 2009;80(12): 1001–1005, doi:10.3357/asem.2575.2009.
International Civil Aviation Organization. Accident Stats. [Internet]. [Cited 2021 July 8]. Available from: https://www.icao.int/ safety/iStars/Pages/Accident-Statistics.aspx
Nable JV, Tupe CL, Gehle BD, Brady WJ. In-flight medical emergencies during commercial travel. New Eng J Med. 2015;373(10): 939–945.
Federal Aviation Administration. Attention passengers: Sit down and buckle up. [Internet]. [Cited 2021 January 12]. Available from: https://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=20074
Flight Safety Foundation. Cabin crews must capture passengers’ attention in predeparture safety briefings. Cabin Crew Saf. 2000;35(4):1–11.
Gross R. Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour, 7th, London: Hachette UK. 2017.
Hosenfeld C. Learning about learning: Discovering our students’ strategies. Foreign Language Annals. 1976;9(2): 117–130.
Bandura A. Vicarious processes: A case of no-trial learning. Advances in Experimental Soc Psychol.1965: 1–55.
Bandura A, Ross D, and Ross SA. Vicarious reinforcement and imitative learning. J Abnorm Psychol. 1963; 67(6): 601-607.
Friedman HS, Schustack, MW. Personality: Classic theories and modern research 5th, Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 2012.
Nicolle A, Symmonds M, and Dolan RJ. Optimistic biases in observational learning of value. Cognition. 2011; 119(3): 394–402.
Craig SD., Gholson B, Brittingham JK, Williams JL, Shubeck KT. Promoting vicarious learning of physics using deep questions with explanations. Comput. Sci. Educ. 2012;58(4): 1042–1048.
Craig SD, Brittingham JK, Williams JL, Cheney KR, and Gholson B. Incorporating vicarious learning environments with discourse scaffolds into physics classrooms. In: Craig SD, Dicheva D, Lester J, Mizoguchi R, Ogan A, Shute VJ, editors. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education [Internet]. 2009 Jul 6–7; Brighton, UK; 2009 [cited 2021 January 16]. Available from: https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/221297572_Incorporating_Vicarious_ Learning_Environments_with_Discourse_Scaffolds_into_Physics_Classrooms
Gholson B, Coles R, Craig SD. Features of computerized multimedia environments that support vicarious learning processes. In: Khine MS, Saleh IM, editors. New science of learning. New York, NY: Springer; 2010; 53–77.
Bust PD, Gibb AG, Pink S. Managing construction health and safety: Migrant workers and communicating safety messages. Saf Sci.2008;46(4): 585–602.
Snelson C. Web-based video in education: Possibilities and pitfalls [Internet]. TCC Worldwide Online Conference; 2008. Available from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.173.1086&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Lindsay CJ, Moore DW, Anderson A, Dillenburger K. The role of imitation in video-based interventions for children with autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation. 2013;16(4): 283–289.
Hofer T, Hauf P, Aschersleben G. Infants’ perception of goal directed actions on video. Br J Dev Psychol. 2007;25(3): 485–498.
Corbett, CL, McLean, GA. Passenger safety awareness Reprise 2007: Still ignorant after all these years [Internet]. The Fifth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference; 2007. Available from https://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/2007conference/files/Evacuation/WedAM/
Lee CC, Wang SW, Hsu MK, and Jan SM. Air passenger’s perception toward pre-flight safety briefing videos: Does it matter? J Air Transp Manag. 2018;72: 20–31.
Moreno R, Mayer R. Interactive multimodal learning environments. Educ Psychol Rev. 2007;19(3): 309–326.
Fadel C, Lemke C. Multimodal learning through media. In: Norbert MS, editor. Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning. Boston, MA: Springer; 2012; 2378–2381,
Sankey M, Birch D, Gardiner M. Engaging students through multimodal learning environments: The journey continues. Paper presented at: ASCILITE 2010: 27th annual conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education: Curriculum, technology and transformation for an unknown future [Internet].2010. Available from http://www.ascilite. org/conferences/sydney10/procs/Sankey-full.pdf
Zywno MS. A contribution to validation of score meaning for Felder-Soloman’s index of learning styles [Internet]. the 2003 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition; 2003. Available from http://www4. ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public//ILSdir/Zywno_Validation_Study.pdf
Moreno R. Instructional technology: Promise and pitfalls. In: Pytlik Zillig L, Bodvarsson M, Bruning R, editors. Technology-based education: Bringing researchers and practitioners together. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing; 2005; 1–19.
Baykan Z, Naçar M. Learning styles of first-year medical students attending Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey. Adv Physiol Educ. 2007;31(2): 158–160.
Fleming ND, Mills C. Not another inventory, rather a catalyst for reflection. To Improve the Academy. 1992;11(1): 137–155.
Nuzhat A, Salem RO, Quadri MS, Al-Hamdan N. Learning style preferences of medical students: A single-institute experience from Saudi Arabia. Int J Med Educ. 2011;2: 70–73.
Gilakjani AP, Ismail HN, Ahmadi SM. The effect of multimodal learning models on language teaching and learning. Theory Pract Lang Stud. 2011;1(10): 1321–1327.
Bickham DS, Wright JC, Huston AC. Attention, comprehension, and the educational influences of television. In Singer DG, Singer JL, editors. Handbook of children and the media 2nd. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publishing; 2012; 101–119.
Sternberg RJ, Pretz JE. Cognition and intelligence: Identifying the mechanisms of the mind. London: Cambridge University Press; 2005.
Žebec MS, Demetriou A, Kotrla-Topić M. Changing expressions of general intelligence in development: A 2-wave longitudinal study from 7 to 18 years of age. Intelligence. 2005;49(1): 94–109.
Deeks A, Lombard C, Michelmore J, Teede H. The effects of gender and age on health related behaviors. BMC Public Health. 2009;9(1):213.
Korn L, Bonny-Noach H. Gender differences in deviance and health risk behaviors among young-adult undergraduate students. Subst Use Misuse. 2017;53(1): 59–69.
Wu T-Y, Rose SE, Bancroft JM. Gender differences in health risk behaviors and physical activity among middle school students. J Sch Nurs. 2006;22(1): 25–31. doi:10.1177/ 10598405060220010501.
Hall A, Ho C, Keay L, McCaffery K, Hunter K, Charlton J, Brown J. Using instructional videos to promote correct use of child restraint systems: Qualitative consumer input and quantitative testing [Internet]. Australasian Road Safety Conference; 2017. Available from https://acrs. org.au/files/papers/arsc/2017/Hall_00099_EA.pdf
Shen J, Rouse J, Godbole M, Wells HL, Boppana S, Schwebel, DC. Systematic review: Interventions to educate children about dog safety and prevent pediatric dog-bite injuries: A meta-analytic review. J Pediatr Psychol. 2016;42(7):779–791.
Rutkowska N, Doradzińska Ł, Bola, M. Complex naturalistic stimuli are prioritized by attention when maintained in visual working memory. bioRxiv; 2020.
Sundar SS, Kalyanaraman S. Arousal, memory, and impression-formation effects of animation speed in web advertising. J Advert. 2004;33(1):7–17.
Tehrani M, Molesworth BR. Pre-flight safety briefings, mood and information retention. Appl Ergon. 2015;51(1): 377–382.
Tehrani M, Molesworth BR. The effect of mood on performance in a nonnormal situation. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors. 2016;6(1):1–11.