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Antimicrobial resistance due to the irrational use of antibiotics in the livestock sector is a global public health problem. In Bangladesh, poultry farmers use several types of antibiotics in poultry production to promote growth as well as treat and prevent diseases. This study aimed to explore stakeholders’ roles and dependencies for antibiotic transactions in commercial poultry production. We conducted an ethnographic study in an urban village of Narsingdi District in Bangladesh from June 2019-February 2020, and data were collected using in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, and observations. We analyzed data using an inductive approach and thematic analysis. The findings showed that dealers maintained the functional linkage between input producers and poultry farmers during production input transactions, including antibiotics. The companies assigned sales representatives and veterinarians to maintain marketing channels to achieve sales targets of production inputs. Large scale farmers purchase production inputs with cash from dealers. Small scale farmers purchase production inputs with credit from a particular dealer. Large scale farmers provide poultry treatment based on their own experiences and also rely on government veterinarians to treat severe poultry diseases. Small scale farmers depend on dealers and company veterinarians to treat poultry diseases. Veterinarians often prescribed antibiotics to farmers without a diagnosis of sick poultry. Both large scale and small scale farmers used different antibiotics and antibiotic medicated feed frequently to treat diseases and promote growth, without considering the administration process of antibiotic use to treat poultry diseases. This study revealed stakeholders’ role and dependencies for antibiotic transactions that determine antibiotic use for broiler poultry farming. We recommended modifying the existing poultry farming system and implementing a policy regarding antibiotic transactions for poultry production to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance, which may threaten, both animal and human health.
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