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Diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) remain the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among children in Nepal. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of diarrhea and ARI and its determinants among children from 2015 to 2018. The study used the data of diarrhea and ARI from District Health Information System 2 published by Integrated Health Information Management Section and district characteristics data from Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistical model was used for assessing diarrhea and ARI and its determinants were performed using multiple linear regression. The model provided good fit as indicated r-squared statistic (0.68) for diarrhea and r-squared statistic (0.56) for ARI. The proportion for diarrhea and ARI were 51% and 68% respectively. The multivariate analysis found that mother education and number of children was associated with diarrhea; human development index was associated with ARI and poverty gap, malnutrition and low birth weight were associated with both diarrhea and ARI. This study showed steady decreasing trend in diarrhea and ARI from 2015 to 2018; however, the cases are large and evenly distributed in Nepal. These findings provide insight to establish prevention programs based on socio economic barriers and high risky areas.
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