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Thailand’s National Health Security Act promoted a participatory process of civil society organizations (CSOs) by granting funds to provide health promotion and disease prevention (P&P) services in the community. This qualitative research aimed to elaborate CSOs’ participating roles and obstacles in providing P&P services and gave recommendations to improve the CSOs’ roles. The research methods included documentary research, in-depth interview, and focus group discussions. The study revealed that in 2020, twenty-one CSOs received a budget for a total value of 9.1 million baht, which was 3.8% of the total area-based fund. Moreover, 1,724 million baht, or 36.18% of the total community-based fund, was granted to CSOs under 75,698 community-based projects. As a result, people gained more access to the services, especially those whose regular service providers were unable to provide. However, it was found that the area-based budget was allocated for CSOs in a very small proportion. This was due to the issues in attitudes and mistrust in CSOs’ capabilities and the lack of clear criteria for budget approval. Therefore, it was a challenge to earnestly promote the participation of civil society in P&P activities in all the areas of Thailand.
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