Main Article Content
Preterm birth (PTB) is an important health concern and a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. This review article determined potential risk factor(s) associated with PTB and evaluated the overall trend of PTB prevalence in India. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Appropriate statistical tools were employed to identify the PTB associated risk factor(s). The prevalence of PTB was found to vary across the country. The overall pooled risk of PTB was found to vary with different risk factors such as gestational hypertension of 19.16% (95% CI 8.54 to 29.78, I2 = 84.09 %); 9.49% for gravida (95% CI 2.99 to 16.00, I2 = 86.07%), 8.34 % for anemia (95% CI 4.45 to 12.24, I2 = 79.88%); 8.34% for prior PTB (95% CI 4.45 to 12.24, I2 = 94.89%) and 4.61% for gestational diabetes (95% CI 1.48 to 7.73, I2 = 53.27%). Moreover, low socioeconomic status, inadequate antenatal care, infections during pregnancy, and advanced maternal age were also potential risk factors of PTB among the Indian population. The rate of PTB showed an increasing trend with the high frequency of occurrence in India. Pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, prior history of PTB, maternal anemia, and gravida were found to be potential risk factors causing PTB. Understanding the harmful effects of PTB and providing preconception counseling to those mothers who are at high PTB risk should be emphasized to address the PTB associated health consequences.
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