Environmental Management to Control Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Elderly with Dementia
Keywords:Dementia, Elderly, Environmental management, Negative behavior
Negative behaviors are the main source of distress for caregivers for the elderly with dementia. Nurses should be trained in managing agitation and other negative behaviors, as well as caring for the emotions of affected patients. Previous studies have identified that various classified behavioral problems may stem from common causes. A universal treatment may be applied according to the features of the syndrome. Therefore, studies are required to highlight the most effective ways of managing behavioral and emotional problems in the elderly with dementia. This study identified research articles regarding the environmental management of behavioral and emotional problems in elderly patients with dementia. A non-systematic literature review was carried out using the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) framework utilizing ScienceDirect, ProQuest, SAGE databases in the last 5 years, searching with keywords “elderly, dementia, management, environment, AND caregiver.” The results showed behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) experienced by the elderly with dementia include agitation, depression, elation, delusions and hallucinations. Environmental characteristics such as light, sound, temperature, color, are important things to consider. Such features can have a positive impact on the dementia patients' physical health, activities of daily living, social relationships and cognitive functioning. A modified sensory room made the elderly have positive energy and raised awareness of the importance of interpersonal relationships. The modifications were fiber-optic lighting, music therapy, aromatherapy, and multisensory stimuli using tactile manipulatives and specific tools for daily live activities. Future research should seek to understand the trends of symptoms over the disease progression to provide proper environment modification and support the caregivers. It is important to identify the environmental modifications that make the most significant impact in reducing negative behaviors of the elderly with dementia.
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