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Background: To report two cases of indigenous ocular gnathostomiasis in Myanmar with the update of the current status of this disease in Myanmar by literature survey.
Results: Two middle-aged women, 55-year-old and 40-year-old, living in Yangon, Myanmar, presented individually to two different hospitals with several weeks history of blurred vision. In both cases, a live worm of about 4-5 mm was found moving in the anterior chamber of the eye in association with inflammatory cell infiltration. The worm in the anterior chamber of each patient was successfully removed by microscopic surgery. The visual acuiety of the patients returned to normal after removal of the worm. Literature survey revealed that, including 2 cases reported hetre, the number of cumulative cases of ocular gnathostomiasis in Myanmar exceeds 20 cases, the worst record in the world.
Conclusions: Since ocular gnathostomiasis is an extremely rare form of gnathostomiasis, thausands of cutaneous and/or visceral cases have been undiagnosed in Myanmar. Nationwide epidemiological survey for gnathostomiasis of any form should be performed.
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