Costs of sickness absence among government personnel of the units under Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health

Authors

  • Phakhawan Worrawit Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University
  • Ariya Bunngamchairat Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University
  • Suttinun Chantanakul Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University
  • Kanjana Tisayaticom International Health Policy Programme (IHPP) Thailand, Ministry of Public Health

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14456/dcj.2022.18

Keywords:

costs of sickness absence, sickness absence, government personnel

Abstract

Sickness absence refers to when an employee was absent from work due to sickness. It resulted in reduced efficiencies of work and could reflected well-beings of employees in organizations. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the sickness absence duration, costs of sickness absence, and the relationship between costs of sickness absence and personal factors. The secondary data of sickness absence records of 1,884 employees during 2014-2016, from the units under the Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health were included. Descriptive statistics was applied to analyze average sickness absence duration, while average costs were calculated by Human Capital Approach. The associations between sickness absence costs and personal factors were tested by multiple linear regression. The findings showed that the overall sickness absence per year from 2014 to 2016 stood at 604, 795, and 535 days, with an average of 10.53, 9.17, 9.55 days per person per year, respectively. The average costs of sickness absence per year from 2014 to 2016 were 2,880.95, 2,624.18, and 2,882.14 Baht per person per year, respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between sickness absence duration and costs of sickness absence, including no statistical associations of costs of sickness absence, with individual personal factors including gender, age, types of employees, and causes of absence. To summarize, there are no differences in absence duration, costs of sickness absence, and relationship between the costs of sickness absence and the personal variables. This research reflected overall well-beings of employees as a consequence; the organization could develop the information system for efficient monitoring and evaluation of employees’ health. This, in turn, led to formulation of policy and planning in health welfare, such as the annual health check-up responsive to sex and age.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

World Health Organization. The case for paid sick leave: World Health Report (2010) Background Paper, No 9 [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2021 Jun 30]. Available from: https://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/financing/healthreport/SickleaveNo9FINAL.pdf

Platts L, Seddigh A, Berntson E, Westerlund H. Sickness absence and sickness presence in relation to office type: An observational study of employer-recorded and self-reported data from Sweden. PLOS ONE. 2020;15(4):e0231934. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231934.

Kristensen T. Sickness absence and work strain among Danish slaughterhouse workers: An analysis of absence from work regarded as coping behaviour. Social Science & Medicine. 1991;32(1):15-27. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(91)90122-S.

Leao A, Barbosa-Branco A, Turchi M, Steenstra I, Cole D. Sickness absence among municipal workers in a Brazilian municipality: a secondary data analysis. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10(1):773. doi: 10.1186/s13104-017-3116-5.

Manty M, Lallukka T, Lahti J, Pientilainen O, Laaksonen M, Lahelma E, et al. Physical and mental health functioning after all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence: a register-linkage follow-up study among ageing employees. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):114. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4051-z.

Seglem K, Orstavik R, Torvik F, Roysamb E, Vollrath M. Education differences in sickness absence and the role of health behaviors: a prospective twin study. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1689. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09741-y.

Whitaker SC. The management of sickness absence. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2001 Jun; 58:420-424. doi: 10.1136/oem.58.6.420

Alexanderson K, Norlund A. Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). Chapter 1. Aim, Background, Key Concepts, Regulations, and Current Statistics. 2004;63:12-30. doi: 10.1080/14034950410021808.

Goorts K, Vandenbroeck S, Rusu D, Du Bois M, Godderis L. Screening for the risk on long-term sickness absence. J Public Health Res. 2018;7(2):1419. doi: 10.4081/jphr.2018.1419.

American Diabetes Association. Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2012. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(4):1033-1046. doi: 10.2337/dc12-2625

Genowska A, Fryc J, Pinkas J, Jamiolkowski J, Szafraniec K, Szpak A, et al. Social costs of loss in productivity-related absenteeism in Poland. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2017;30(6):917-32. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01123

Asay G, Roy K, Lang J, Payne R, Howard D. Absenteeism and Employer Costs Associated With Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Factors in the US Workforce. Prev Chronic Dis. 2016;13:E141. doi: 10.5888/pcd13.150503

Vroome E, Uegaki K, Ploeg C, Treutlein D, Steenbeek R, Weerd M. Burden of Sickness Absence Due to Chronic Disease in the Dutch Workforce from 2007 to 2011. J Occup Rehabil. 2015;25(4):675-84. doi: 10.1007/s10926-015-9575-4.

Prince of Songkla University. Sickness absenteeism among personnel of Prince of Songkla University: case study Faculty of Medicine [Internet]. 2000 [cited 2021 Jun 30]. Available from: https://kb.psu.ac.th/psukb/bitstream/2553/4106/5/203723.pdf (in Thai)

Ministry of Labour Thailand. Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Act B.E.2554 (A.D.2011) [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 2] Available from: http://www3.mol.go.th/content/63218/1505807321 (in Thai)

Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health Thailand. Occupational Diseases Control Act B.E.2562 (A.D.2019) [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2021 Feb 2]. Available from: https://ddc.moph.go.th/law.php?law=5 (in Thai)

National Statistical Office. Social Security Fund Statistics 2005-2014 [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2020 May 8]. Available from: http://service.nso.go.th/nso/web/statseries/statseries10.html

(in Thai)

Thailand Development Research Institute. Guidelines for cost limitation of medical expenses for government officers [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2022 Feb 10]. Available from: http://tdri.or.th/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/wb99.pdf (in Thai)

Nipun Yaiarun. Mission and Moral of Government Scholarship Students and country Development [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 May 8]. Available from: www.oocities.org/thaipgusyd/winningEssay.doc (in Thai)

Kongsin S. Economic Health. Bangkok: Si Jad Jad Pushishing; 2011. (in Thai)

Cancer Research Economic Support Team. Productivity losses and how they are calculated. [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2021 Jul 2]. Available from: https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/2019-04/crest-factsheet-productivity-loss.pdf

Ministry of Labour Thailand. Minimum wage announcement No.7 [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2021 Jul 22] Available from: https://www.mol.go.th/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/07/prakaaskhnakrrmkaarkhaacchaang_eruueng_atraakhaacchaangkhantam_chbabthii9_0.pdf

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (Version 18) [Computer software]. Chicago, US: SPSS Inc.

Microsoft Excel (Version 10) [Computer software]. Washington, US: Microsoft Corporation.

Korlin J, Alexanderson K, Svedberg P. Sickness absence among women and men in the police: A systematic literature review. Scand J Public Health. 2009;37(3):310-9. doi: 10.1177/1403494808098508

Indulski J, Szubert Z. Medical causes of female sickness absence during economic transition in Poland. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 1999;12(4):295-303.

Saravi B, Kabirzadeh A, Rezazadeh E, Khariki M, Asgari Z, Farahabadi E, et al. Prevalence and Causes of Medical Absenteeism Among Staff (Case Study at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences: 2009-2010). Mater Sociomed. 2013;25(4):233-7. doi: 10.5455/msm.2013.25.233-237.

Harvard Health Publishing. Harvard Medical School. Mars vs. Venus: The gender gap in health 2019 [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 Apr 24]. Available from: https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/mars-vs-venus-the-gender-gap-in-health.

National Statistical Office. The smoking and drinking behaviour survey 2017 [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2020 May 8]. Available from: http://www.nso.go.th/sites/2014/DocLib13/ด้านสังคม/สาขาสุขภาพ/พฤติกรรมการสูบบุหรี่และการดื่มสุรา/2560/2560_Full-Report.pdf (in Thai)

National Statistical Office. Health behaviour of population survey 2021 [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2022 Feb 9]. Available from: http://www.nso.go.th/sites/2014en/Survey/social/health/health_behavior/2021/fullreport_64.pdf (in Thai)

World Health Organization. Gender, Health and Work. [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2020 Apr 24]. Available from: https://www.who.int/gender/other_health/Gender,HealthandWorklast.pdf

Office for National Statistics UK. Sickness absence in the UK labour market: 2016. [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2020 Apr 26]. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/labourproductivity/articles/sicknessabsenceinthelabourmarket/2016

Jin K. Modern biological theories of aging. Aging Dis. 2010;1(2):72–4.

World Health Organization. Ageing and health. [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2020 Apr 26]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health

The Comptroller General's Department. Manual of Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2020 May 10]. Available from: https://home.kku.ac.th/praudit/law/07_medical_fee/22_Medical_guide_government%20officer_CGD_2553.pdf (in Thai)

Schell E, Theorell T, Nilsson B, Saraste H. Work health determinants in employees without sickness absence. Occup Med (Lond). 2013;63(1):17-22. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqs164

D’Errico A, Costa G. Socio-demographic and work-related risk factors for medium- and long-term sickness absence among Italian workers. Eur J Public Health 2011;22(5):683-8. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckr140

Burden of Disease Thailand, International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health. Disabilities-Adjuested Life Years: DALYs 2009 [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2020 Apr 28]. Available from: http://bodthai.net/download/รายงานภาระโรค-2552/ (in Thai)

Burden of Disease Thailand, International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health. Disabilities-Adjuested Life Years: DALYs 2011 [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2020 Apr 28]. Available from: http://bodthai.net/download/รายงานภาระโรค-2554/ (in Thai)

Burden of Disease Thailand, International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health. Disabilities-Adjuested Life Years: DALYs 2013 [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2020 Apr 28]. Available from: http://bodthai.net/download/รายงานภาระโรค-2556/ (in Thai)

Burden of Disease Thailand, International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health. Disabilities-Adjuested Life Years: DALYs 2014 [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2020 Apr 28]. Available from: http://bodthai.net/download/รายงานภาระโรคและการบาด/ (in Thai)

National Statistical Office. Numbers of Outpatient Classified by 21 Diseases from Health Service Center, Ministry of Public Health Thailand 2015-2019 [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2022 Feb]. Available from: https://opendata.nesdc.go.th/dataset/http-service-nso-go-th-nso-web-statseries-statseries09-html (in Thai)

World Health Organization. CDC in Thailand. [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2020 Apr 28]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/countries/thailand/default.htm.

Published

2022-03-30

How to Cite

1.
Worrawit ภ, Bunngamchairat อ, Chantanakul ส, Tisayaticom ก. Costs of sickness absence among government personnel of the units under Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health. Dis Control J [Internet]. 2022 Mar. 30 [cited 2022 Jun. 30];48(1):201-14. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/DCJ/article/view/247665

Issue

Section

Original Article