Prevalence of Primary HIV-1 Drug Resistance Among Patients with HIV-1 Infection/AIDS in Bamrasnaradura Infectious Disease Institute
After a decade of scaling up of antiretroviral therapy in Thailand, the emergence of primary HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) was demonstrated. In this study the authors analyzed the baseline HIV-1 genotyping assay of antiretroviral naive HIV-1 infected patients associated with tuberculosis (TB) enrolled to a randomized control trial of 4 weeks versus 12 weeks of antiretroviral therapy after TB treatment between October 2009 to May 2011. The purpose were to determine the prevalence of primary HIVDR among patients with HIV-1 infection/AIDS and factors related. Of 155 patients included in the study, 78.1% were male and mean (SD) age was 37.9 (8.7) years. Median (IQR) CD4 cell counts were 42 (17-107) cell/mm3. The prevalence of primary HIVDR was 3.9%. The prevalence of primary HIVDR to nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were 1.3%,1.9% and 0.6% respectively. Compared clinical characteristics between patients with and without primary HIVDR, there were no significant difference in age, sex, body weight, CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA level, mode of HIV-1 transmission and HIV-1 subtype (p>0.05). Regular surveillance of primary HIVDR in HIV infected patients in Thailand should be done.
2. Grant RM, Ilecht FM, Warmerdam M, Liu L, Liegler T, Petropoulos CJ, et al. Time trends in primary HIV-1 drug resistance among recently infected persons. JAMA 2002; 288: 180-8.
3. Little SJ, Holte S, Routy JP, Daar ES, Markowitz M, Collier AC, et al. Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV. N Eng J Med 2002; 347: 385-94
4. UK Group on Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance. Time trends in primary resistance to HIV drugs in the United Kingdom: multicenter observational study. BMJ 2005; 331: 1368.
5 Chasombat S, Lertporiyasuwat C, Thanprasertsuk S, Suebsang L, Lo YR. The national access to antiretroviral program for PHA (NAPHA) in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2006; 37: 704-15
6. UNAIDS-Thailand. Available from URL: http://www. unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/thailand/ Accessed on 15 December 2012.
7. Bennett DE, Myatt M, Bertagnolia S, Sutherland D, Gilks CF. Recommendations for surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in countries scaling up antiretroviral treatment. Antivir ther 2008; 13 (Suppl2): 25-36.
8. Sirivichayakul S, Phanuphak P, Pamkam T, Ocharoen R, Sutherland D, Ruxrungtham K. HIV drug resistance transmission threshold survey in Bangkok, Thailand. Antivir Ther 2008; 13 (Suppl 2): 109-13.
9. Apisarnthanarak A, Jirayasethping T, Sa-nguansilp C, Thongprapai H, Kittihanukul C, Kamudamas A, et al. Antiretroviral drug resistance among antiretroviral-naive persons with recent HIV infection in Thailand. HIV Med 2008; 9: 322-5.
10. Sungkanuparph S, Sukasem C, Kiertiburanakul S, Pasomsub S, Chantratita W.. Emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 infected patients after rapid scaling up of antiretroviral therapy in Thailand. J Int AIDS Soc 2012; 15: 12.
11. Manosuthi W, Mankatitham W, Lueangniyomkul A, Thongyen S, Likanonsakul S, Suwanvatana P, et al. Time to initiate antiretroviral therapy between 4 weeks and 12 weeks of tuberculosis treatment in HIV-infected patients: results from the TIME study. JAIDS 2012; 60: 377-83.
12. Kuritzkes DR, Grant RM, Feorino P, Griswold M, Hoover M, Young R, et al. Performance characteristics of the TRUEGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the Opengene DNA Sequencing System. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 1594-9.
13. Bennett DE, Comacho RJ, Otelea D, Kuritzkes DR, Fluery H, Kiuchi M, et al. Drug resistance mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance: 2009 update. Plos One 2009; 4: e4724.
14. Frentz D, Boucher CA, van de Vijver DA. Temporal change in the epidemiology of transmission of drug-resistance HIV-1 across the world. AIDs Rev 2012; 14: 17-27.
15. Richman DD, Havlir D, Corbeil J, Looney D, Ignacio C, Spector SA, et al. Nevirapine resistance mutation of HIV-1 selected during therapy J Virol 1994; 68: 1660-6.
16. Nicastri E, Sarmati L, d'Ettore G, Palmisano L, Parisi SG, Uccella I, et al. Replication capacity, biological phenotype and drug resistance of HIV strains isolated from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. J Med Virol 2003; 69: 1-6.
17. Sungkanuparph S, Oyomopito R, Sirivichayakul S, Sirisanthana T, Li PC, Kantipong P, et al. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 infected patients in Asia: results from the TREAT Asia studies to evaluate resistance-monitoring study. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52: 1053-7.
18. Kasang C, Kalluvya S, Majinge C, Stich A, Bodem J, Kongola G, et al. HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral therapy-naive patients in Tanzania not eligible for WHO threshold HIVDR survey is dramatically high. Plos One 2011; 6: e23091.
19. Manosuthi W, Thongyen S, Nilkamhang S, Manosuthi S, Sungkanuparph S. HIV-1 drug resistance associated mutations among antiretroviral naive Thai patients with chronic HIV-1 infection. J Med Virol 2013; 85: 194-9.
20. M.J.Wensing A, van de Vijver DA, Angarano G, Asjo B, Balotta C, Boeri E, et al. Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistant variants in untreated individual in Europe: Implications for clinical management. JID 2005; 192: 958-66.
Copyright (c) 2013 Disease Control Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Articles published in the Disease Control Journal considered as academic work, research or analysis of personal opinion of the authors, not opinion of the Department of Disease Control or editorial team. The authors must be responsible for their articles.