Glucosamine contents of milk hydrolysates from various mammals


  • Zenta Takatsu
  • Hiroshi Matsumoto
  • Kumiko Hanaki
  • Zhihe Zhang
  • Rong Hou
  • Hairui Wang
  • Zheng Yan
  • Ying Yao
  • Norikatsu Yasuda
  • Yukiko Shimokawa
  • Hiroyuki Kurokawa


glucosamine, hydrolysate, mammals, milk


It was reported in the authors’ previous study that the glucosamine (GlcN) content of Asian elephant milk (516 mg
GlcN/100 g milk) was markedly higher than that of cow, mare and human breast milk. Based on these findings, the
GlcN levels of milk from other mammals, especially herbivores, were analyzed using the identical high performance
ion exchange liquid chromatography as was employed in the previous study. The following mg GlcN/(100 g milk)
values were obtained for milk hydrolysates from various mammals: Jersey cow 12; water buffalo 6; goat 10;
hippopotamus 19; dog 24; bear 97; giant panda 72; seal 114; and dolphin 94. Additionally, mg GlcN/(g total amino
acids), and mg GlcN/100 kcal were calculated. The milk from herbivores contained much lower levels of GlcN than
elephant milk. Bear and marine mammals’ milk exhibited moderate GlcN levels, probably because of their low moisture
content. Giant panda milk displayed slightly increased GlcN levels and the highest value of mg GlcN/(g total amino
acids), and mg GlcN/100 kcal. Free GlcN was not detected in any of the milk samples. The large interspecies differences
in milk GlcN concentrations may be related to their ways of li


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How to Cite

Takatsu, Z. ., Matsumoto, H. ., Hanaki, K. ., Zhang, Z. ., Hou, R. ., Wang, H. ., Yan, Z. ., Yao, Y. ., Yasuda, N. ., Shimokawa, Y. ., & Kurokawa, H. . (2020). Glucosamine contents of milk hydrolysates from various mammals. The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 50(4), 583–587. Retrieved from



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