Environmental Factors for Malaria Infection in Tanintharyi Region, Myanmar: a Case-Control Study
Keywords:Environmental factors, Malaria, Myanmar
Background: The risk of malaria infection can be influenced by the environment factors including house characteristic and house environment. The range of these risks can be more diverse in rural areas, which can include a mix of different housing styles and environments. This study aimed to identify environmental risk factors related to malaria infection in Tanintharyi Region, Myanmar.
Methodology: A case-control study was conducted among 153 malaria cases and 406 controls in Thanintharyi region, Myanmar during May and June 2016. WHO Rapid Diagnosis Test was used to diagnose malaria infection at mobile clinic. All participants completed questionnaires and participated in face-to-face interviews for the project to obtain socioeconomic, house characteristics, and house environments. Multiple logistic regression was performed to quantify environmental risk factors to malaria infection.
Results: Most of participants (54.5%) were male with the average age (±SD) 35 (±12.3) years old. Participants with a lower annual income have increased risk of malaria infection. Houses with bamboo wall [OR=3.63, 95%CI: 2.13,6.20], houses without ceiling [OR=1.95, 95% CI: 1.25,3.03], houses close to stream [OR=1.66, 95%CI :1.12, 2.45], and houses with compound less than one acres [AOR= 13.96, 95%CI :3.16, 61.6] were significant risk factors of malaria infection. Moreover, participants having a poor knowledge regarding malaria [AOR=5.58, 95%CI:2.61,11.9] have increased risk of malaria infection.
Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that improving the house and household environment, together with promoting the knowledge about malaria infection could be a feasible way to reduce the risk of malaria.