Characteristics and factors affecting contraceptive utilization in premarital sexual relationship among unmarried youths in rural Yangon, Myanmar


  • Hnin Ei Lwin College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Alessio Panza College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand


Contraceptive utilization, Unmarried youths, Premarital sexual relationship, Myanmar


Purpose - Several studies showed premarital sexual intercourse among youths appears all regions around the world. The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics and factors affecting actual and intended contraceptive utilization in premarital sexual relationship among unmarried youths in rural Yangon, Myanmar.

Design/methodology/approach - A quantitative cross sectional descriptive study was done with 270 unmarried youths with the age of 15-24 who are residing in a rural township of Yangon region. Data was collected by using combined interviewer-administered questionnaire and self-administered questionnaire between September and October 2017. In this study, modern contraceptive methods refer to oral contraceptive pills, injection, IUD, implant, emergency contraceptive pill, female condom, and male condom, and traditional methods refer to withdrawal and safe period.

Findings - The finding showed 44% of sexually active unmarried youths used at least one modern contraceptive method in their latest sexual intercourse. Always use at least one modern method was only 17.6%. Besides, 44.8% of unmarried youths intended to use only modern method while 8.1% intended to use both modern and traditional contraceptive methods in the future. The final model of multiple logistic regression revealed that there was no association between any independent variables including all socio-demographic characteristics and actual use of contraception in the latest sexual intercourse and always use in the life-time. Intended use of contraception in the future showed significant positive associations with age group of respondents (p-value<0.001), sex (female, p-value=0.044), having own income (p-value=0.013), level of attitude (p-value=0.034), level of belief (p-value=0.002), ever heard about contraception
(p-value=0.003), easy availability of contraception when needed (p-value<0.001), same gender service provider (p-value=0.003) and experience on sexual intercourse (p-value<0.001) in the final model of regression.

Originality/value - Low prevalence of contraceptive utilization and low level of knowledge about contraception especially for emergency contraceptive pill and IUD were found among unmarried rural youths. Delivering more information about contraceptive methods through comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education in middle and high schools, Facebook, mobile application and edutainment program in TV channels should be implemented. Furthermore, unbiased and respectful care should be provided to both married and unmarried youths who seek contraceptive service at the public or private or NGO clinic. Youth-friendly clinic should also be provided for youths who live in rural areas of Yangon region.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Ahmed ZD, Sule IB, Abolaji ML, Mohammed Y, Nguku P. Knowledge and utilization of contraceptive devices among unmarried undergraduate students of a tertiary institution in Kano State, Nigeria 2016. Pan Afr Med J. 2017 Feb; 26: 103. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2017.26.103.11436

2. Noroozi M, Taleghani F, Merghati-Khoei ES, Tavakoli M, Gholami A. Premarital sexual relationships: Explanation of the actions and functions of family. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2014 Jul; 19(4): 424-31.

3. UNFPA. Sexual and reproductive health of young people in Asia and the Pacific: a review of issues, policies and programmes. Bangkok: UNFPA, UNESCO and WHO; 2015.

4. Yip PS, Zhang H, Lam TH, Lam KF, Lee AM, Chan J, et al. Sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. BMC Public Health. 2013 Jul; 13: 691. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-691

5. Tangmunkongvorakul A, Carmichael G, Banwell C, Utomo ID, Sleigh A. Sexual perceptions and practices of young people in Northern Thailand. J Youth Stud. 2011 May; 14(3): 315-39. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2010.522562

6. Yen NTH, Kanchanakhan N. Prevalence and factors related to dental caries among 6 year-old children in Nha Trang city, Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam. J Health Res. 2015; 29(4): 251-8.

7. Htay SS, Oo M, Yoshida Y, Harun-Or-Rashid M, Sakamoto J. Risk behaviours and associated factors among medical students and community youths in Myanmar. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2010 Feb; 72(1-2): 71-81.

8. The 2007 FRHS. Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar: Department of Population, Ministry of Immigration and Population; 2009.

9. Handbook of biological statistics [press release]. Baltimore, Maryland: Sparky House Publishing; 2014.

10. Multivariable analysis: a practical guide for clinicians [press release]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011.

11. Oindo ML. Contraception and sexuality among the youth in Kisumu, Kenya. Afr Health Sci. 2002 Apr; 2(1): 33-9.

12. Gadisa T. Barriers to use contraceptive among adolescents in the city of addis ababa. Addis Ababa University; 2004.

13. Mon MM. Factors influencing decison on contraceptive use among married female youths and their husbands in a rural area of Ayeyarwaddy Divison, Myanmar. Songkla: Prince of Songkla University; 2009.

14. Nyein C, Keiwkarnka B, Sillabutra J. Factors affecting the birth spacing among rural pregnant women in Salin township, Myanmar. J Health Res. 2014; 28(3): 165-71.

15. Han WM. Practice of contraception in premartial and marital sexual relationship among Myanmar youth migrants in Bang Bon district, Bangkok and their reproductive health services accessibility. Bangkok: College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University; 2009.

16. UNFPA. Reproductive health and family planning. UNFPA; 2004.




How to Cite

Lwin, H. E., & Panza, A. (2018). Characteristics and factors affecting contraceptive utilization in premarital sexual relationship among unmarried youths in rural Yangon, Myanmar. Journal of Health Research, 32(Suppl.1), S9-S19. Retrieved from