Preparation and characterization of demineralized bone matrix/chitosan composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

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Panudda Dechwongya
Korbtham Sathirakul
Baldur Kristjánsson
Suwabun Chirachanchai
Sittisak Honsawek

Abstract

Background: A propitious alternative to supply bone substitutes is to develop living tissue substitutes based
on biodegradable materials. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can support and promote osteogenesis; scaffold is also attractive for use in bone tissue engineering. Chitosan scaffold has been shown to possess biological and mechanical properties suitable for tissue engineering and clinical applications.


Objectives: This study aimed to develop a novel DBM/chitosan composite scaffold and to investigate whether
or not it has the ability to support the attachment and proliferation of human periosteal cells in vitro for bone
tissue engineering.


Methods: Chitosan and DBM/chitosan scaffolds (ratios 1:1 and 1:2) were fabricated with a low-cost, freeze-drying technique via thermally induced phase separation. The microstructure, mechanical performance, and biological activity of the scaffolds were studied. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to monitor the surface variation of chitosan and DBM/chitosan porous scaffolds.


Results: Both scaffolds had porosities and pore sizes between 80 and 250 microns. The compressive modulus
of DBM/chitosan composite scaffolds was significantly higher than chitosan scaffolds. Growth of cells on 1:1 and 1:2 DBM/chitosan scaffolds had similar patterns throughout the cell-culture period and was significantly higher than that on chitosan scaffold on culture-day 14. The DBM/chitosan scaffolds have been developed with adequate pore structure and mechanical properties to serve as a support for periosteal cell growth.


Conclusion: DBM/chitosan composite scaffolds have mechanical properties and porosity sufficient to support
ingrowth of new bone tissue. Cell attachment and proliferation findings indicate that DBM/chitosan composite scaffolds may be used as promising materials for bone tissue engineering application

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