Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Adults



  • Orapin Jullmusi -


Prevention, Ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults, Factors related to pneumonia


Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in adults is an important strategy to improve the quality of care for patients receiving mechanical ventilator. Establishing guidelines and responsible teams for VAP prevention are essential for hospitals to actualize. Nurses play an important role in providing nursing care for patients receiving the ventilator and responding for multidisciplinary collaboration. Therefore, they should have knowledge and understanding about diagnosis criteria and factors related to VAP. Additionally, they should put efforts to develop the up-to-date guidelines for VAP prevention and monitor the following of these guidelines for increasing patients’ safety and reducing risk of VAP.   


Download data is not yet available.


Bamrasnaradura Infections Diseases Institute (BIDI). (2018). Handbook for hospital acquired infection diagnosis. Bangkok: Aksorn Graphic and Design. [In Thai].

Bamrasnaradura Infections Diseases Institute (BIDI). (2020). Guideline for the prevention and control of hospital cquired infections. Bangkok: Aksorn Graphic and Design. [In Thai].

But, A., Yetkin, M. A., Kanyilmaz, D., Aslaner, H., Bastug, A., Aypak, A.,…& Bodur, H. (2017). Analysis of epidemiology and risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated pneumonia attacks in intensive care unit patients. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 47(3), 812-816.

Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012) Principles of epidemiology in public health practice: An introduction to applied epidemiology and biostatistics (3rd ed). Retrieved 10 January 2023 from

Chang, L., Dong, Y., & Zhou, P. (2017). Investigation on risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia in acute cerebral hemorrhage patients in intensive care unit. Canadian Respiratory Journal, 2017, Article ID 7272080.

Chen, Y. C. (2009). Critical analysis of the factors associated with enteral feeding in preventing VAP: A systematic review. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 72(4), 171-178.

Ding, C., Zhang, Y., Yang, Z., Wang, J., Jin, A., Wang, W.,…& Zhan, S. (2017). Incidence, temporal trend and factors associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia in mainland China: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17(1), 468.

Empaire, G. D., Siritt, M. E. G., Rosenthal, V. D., Perez, F., Ruiz, Y., Diaz, C. D.,…& Orozco, N. (2017). Multicenter prospective study on device-associated infection rates and bacterial resistance in intensive care units of Venezuela: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) findings. International Health, 9(1), 44-49.

Forel, J. M., Voiller, F., Pulina, D., Gacouin, A, Perrin, G., Barrau, K.,…& Papazian, L. (2012). Ventilator-associated pneumonia and ICU mortality in severe ARDS patients ventilated according to a lung-protective strategy. Critical Care, 16(2), 1-10.

Harding, A. T., & Heaton, N. S. (2022). The impact of estrogens and their receptors on immunity and inflammation during infection. Cancers, 14(4), 1-16.

Klompas, M., Branson, R., Cawcutt, K., Crist, M., Eichenwald, E. C., Greene, L. R.,…& Berenholtz, S. M. (2022). Strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, events, and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia in acute-care hospitals: 2022 update (SHEA/IDSA/APIC practice recommendation). Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 43(6), 687-713.

Klompas, M., Branson, R., Eichenwald, E. C., Greene, L. R., Howell, M. D., Lee, G.,…& Berenholtz, S. M. (2014). Strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in acute care hospitals: 2014 update (SHEA/IDSA practice recommendation). Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 35(8), 915-936.

Ladbrook, E., Khaw, D., Bouchoucha, S., & Hutchinson, A. (2021). A systematic scoping review of the cost-impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) intervention bundles in intensive care. American Journal of Infection Control, 49(7), 928-936.

Lewis, R. H., Sharpe, J. P., Swanson, J. M., Fabian, T. C., Croce, M. A., & Magnotti, L. J. (2018). Reinventing the wheel: Impact of prolonged antibiotic exposure on multidrug-resistant ventilator-associated pneumonia in trauma patients. Journal of Trauma Acute Care Surgery, 85(2), 256-262.

Li Bassi, G., & Torres, A. (2011). Ventilator-associated pneumonia: Role of positioning. Current Opinion in Critical Care, 17(1), 57-63.

Li, J., Xie, D., Li, A., & Yue, J. (2013). Oral topical decontamination for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control. Journal of Hospital Infection, 84(4), 283-293.

Liu, Y., Di, Y., & Fu, S. (2017). Risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia among patients undergoing major oncological surgery for head and neck cancer. Front Med, 11(2), 239-246.

National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). (2023). Pneumonia (Ventilator-associated [VAP] and non-ventilator-associated Pneumonia [PNEU]) event. Retrieved February 16, 2023, from

Noorifard, M., Farahani, R. H., & Hazrati, E. (2020). The incidence and risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia in ICU. Acta Medica Iranica, 58(9), 439-444.

Papazian, L., Klompas, M., & Luyt, C. E. (2020). Ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a narrative review. Intensive Care Medicine, 46(5), 888-906.

Oliveira, J., Zagalo, C., & Cavaco-Silva, P. (2014). Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia, 20(3), 152-161.

Othman, A. A., & Abdelazim, M. S. (2017). Ventilator-associated pneumonia in adult intensive care unit prevalence and complications. The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 5(2), 61-63.

Othman, H. A., Gamil, N. M., Elgazzar, A. E. M., & Fouad, T. A. (2017). Ventilator associated pneumonia, incidence, and risk factors in emergency intensive care unit, Zagazig University Hospitals. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, 66(4), 703-708.

Reechaipichikul, W. (2010). HAP, VAP and HCAP guidelines: from guidelines to clinical practice. Srinagarind Medical Journal, 25(Suppl), 87-94. [In Thai].

Rosenthal, V. D., Al-Abdely, H. M., El-Kholy, A. A., Alkhawaja, S. A. A., Leblebicioglu, H., Mehta, Y., …& Davalos, L. K. (2016). International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium report, data summary of 50 countries for 2010-2015: Device-associated module. American Journal of Infection Control, 44(12), 1495-1504.

Sen, S., Johnston, C., Greenhalgh, D., & Palmieri, T. (2016). Ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention bundle significantly reduces the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill burn patients. Journal of Burn Care and Research, 37(3), 166-171.

Seubniam, S., Ruaisungnoen, W., & Saensom, D. (2017). Factors associated with early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia evelopment among critically ill medical patients. Journal of Nursing and Health Care, 35(1), 137-145. [In Thai].

Tablan, O. C., Anderson, L. J., Besser, R., Bridges, C. & Hajjeh, R. (2004). Guideline for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia, 2003. The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(RR-3), 1-36.

Tejerina, E., Frutos-Vivar, F., Restrepo, M., Anzueto, A., Abroug, F., Palizas, F.,…& Esteban, A. (2006). Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Journal of Critical Care, 21(1), 56-65.

Thamcharoentrakul, B., & Saensom, D. (2019). Effects of using nursing practice guideline for ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention: Medical department. The Journal of Baromarajonani College of Nursing, Nakhonratchasima, 25(1), 25-42. [In Thai].

Thatrimontrichai, A., & Apisarnthanarak, A. (2022). VAP prevention. In L. M. Lin, C. T. Yin, S. W. Hong, N. Jaggi, A. Thatrimontrichai, & A, Apisarnthanarak (Ed.). A handbook of infection control for the Asian healthcare worker (4th Ed.). Retrieved February 27, 2023, from

Trakoonpanichkit, I., Uttama, C., Uangpairoj, N., Chaiwong, D., & Kaweemuang, C. (2018). Effectiveness of implementing the ventilator care bundle in adult critical care units, Nakornping Hospital. Journal of Nurses Association of Thailand Northern Region, 24(1), 39-60. [In Thai].

Unahalekhaka, A., Lueang-a-papong, S., & Chitreecheur, J. (2014). Prevention of multidrug resistant organism infections in intensive care units. Nonthaburi: Health Systems Research Institute. [In Thai].

Wu, D., Wu, C., Zhang, S., & Zhong, Y. (2019). Risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 10(482), 1-7.

Xu, Y., Lai, C., Xu, G., Meng, W., Zhang, J., Hou, H., & Pi, H. (2019). Risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia in elderly patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 14, 1027-1038.

Zimlichman, E., Henderson, D., Tamir O., Franz, C., Song, P., Yamin, C. K.,…& Bates, D. W. (2013). Healthcare-associated infections: A meta-analysis of costs and financial impact on the US health care system. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(22), 2039-2046.




How to Cite

Jullmusi, O. (2023). Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Adults: -. NU Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences, 17(3). Retrieved from