Utilization of embedded smartphone application for testing balance in adult to elderly: the study of concurrent validity
Keywords:balance, force plate, postural control, smartphone, application
Objectives Postural control is an essential component to maintain equilibrium and control individual mobility. Currently, quantitative measures of balance included the force plate analysis systems of center of pressure displacement. Despite, it has been accepted as the gold standard and demonstrated high sensitivity, they still have several limitations. It needs to conduct in laboratory setting and costly. Smartphone technology with embedded sensors may provide a promising evaluation of balance control when force plates are unavailable. The objective of this study was to explore the concurrent validity of the parameters calculated from the smartphone application compared to the force plate-based measure of postural sway.
Methods Fifty-three healthy volunteers, aged 20-72 years were evaluated the ability to control balance during quiet standing. Six static balance tests were conducted in the following order: standing, tandem stance and single leg standing. All tests performed each condition 30 seconds starting from eyes opened then closed.
Results All the sway measurement from smartphone were significantly correlated with the force plate parameter. Data across six balance tasks showed strong positive correlation, the Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients were 0.841-0.866 (p < 0.001).
Conclusion Smartphone parameters demonstrates a high concurrent validity against the gold standard measurement, provided the opportunity for further development in clinical setting. Further studies are needed to determine the reliability and sensitivity to other population.
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