Shunt occlusion in neonates with congenital heart disease undergoing systemic-to-pulmonary shunt surgery in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital
Keywords:systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, shunt occlusion, neonates with congenital heart disease
Objectives To study occlusion of shunts and related factors in neonates after systemic-to-pulmonary shunt surgery.
Methods This retrospective descriptive study reviewed the medical records of neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit who underwent a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt operation at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016. Patient characteristics and operative data were collected. Demographic data and incidence of shunt occlusion were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Factors associated with shunt occlusion were identified using Fisher’s exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test.
Results Seventy-five newborns were enrolled in the study, of whom 39 (52.0%) were female. The average birth weight was 2,711.1 grams, and the average gestational age was 37.6 weeks. The number of newborns with TOF or TOF/IVS was equal to those with PA/IVS (34.7%). Sixty neonates (80%) underwent Modified Blalock Taussig shunt surgery, most (57.3%) with a 3.5 Fr. diameter shunt. The average weight at surgery was 2,898.9 grams, and the average age at surgery was 17.6 days. Anticoagulant and anti-platelet medication was used with almost all the neonates following surgery (96.0% and 93.3%, respectively). The incidence of shunt occlusion was 22.7% (17 neonates). Complete occlusion was found in 11 neonates. In-hospital shunt occlusion occurred in 10 neonates as well as in 7 neonates after discharge from the hospital. The overall mortality rate was 14.7%. Congenital heart disease diagnosis and gestational age were significantly associated with shunt occlusion (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively).
Conclusion The study results can be used to provide develop guidelines for treatment of neonates with complex heart disease and low gestational age as well as nursing care guidelines for the prevention of blockage of the shunt in neonates undergoing a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt operation due to hospitalization in a hospital.
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