Main Article Content
Objectives Workplace violence is known as a global health problem, especially in health sector. Most studies aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors. Major well-established guidelines mostly focused on hardware and workplace procedures, therefore guidelines may not be appropriated to Thailand healthcare setting. This study aimed to develop and apply a practical form of preventing workplace violence system in hospital, especially emergency room, as high-risk area of workplace violence’s occurrence.
Methods A participatory action research was conducted. Study population included various stakeholders, hospital executives, occupational health and safety management, health personnel, total of 64, and researcher. Current information regarding workplace violence was collected by focus group discussions, observation, questionnaire, and was analyzed in various terms related to workplace violence. A practical form of system was developed from well-established guidelines and collected information.
Results Verbal violence had the highest proportion (34.9%) amongst workers which were multidisciplinary professions and various affiliations. Respondence in workplace violence was individual. There were some measures in preventing workplace violence which were incomplete, CCTV did not cover all areas, training programs did not focus on soft skill as important and nor arrange evenly. The proportion of worker’s perception to current measures was 66.6%. A practical form of system was contemplated for reducing measure’s limitation. Communication of policies was raised after conference reflection with stakeholders.
Conclusion Hospital should describe policies and practices in preventing workplace violence included announcing policy in written declaration, conducting activities which enhanced physical and qualitative protective measures, and developing appropriated communication and respond-to-event system.
2. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Executive summary. In: Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; 2007. p. 6-10.
3. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Introduction. In: Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occu-pational safety and health. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; 2007. p. 11-3.
4. Leka S, Jain A. Executive summary. In: Health impact of psychosocial hazards at work: an overview. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010. p. 1-3.
5. United States. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Workplace violence in healthcare: understanding the challenge [Internet]. 2015. [cited 2019 May 12]. Available from: https://bit.ly/3a3Gr27.
6. Hesketh KL, Duncan SM, Estabrooks CA, Reimer MA, Giovannetti P, Hyndman K, et al. Workplace violence in Alberta and British Columbia hospitals. Health Policy. 2003;63: 311-21.
7. Keyvanara M, Maracy MR, Ziari NB. A study conducted on the demographic factors of victims of violence in support and administra-tive departments of hospital in 2013. J Educ Health Promot [Internet]. 2015. [cited 2019 August 12]. Available from: https://bit.ly/3a 9201W.
8. Liu H, Zhao S, Jiao M, Wang J, Peters DH, Qiao H, et al. Extent, nature, and risk factors of workplace violence in public tertiary hospitals in China: a cross-sectional survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:6801–17.
9. Saimai W, Thanjira S, Phasertsukjinda N. Workplace violence and its management by nursing personnel in Emergency Department. Rama-thibodi Nurs J. 2553;16:121–35.
10. Chen W-C, Hwu H-G, Kung S-M, Chiu H-J, Wang J-D. Prevalence and determinants of workplace violence of health care workers in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. J Occup Health. 2008;50:288–93.
11. Cheung T, Yip PSF. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and corre-lates. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2017. [cited 2019 August 12]. Available from: https://bit.ly/2QEa4Qx.
12. Cheung T, Lee PH, Yip PSF. Workplace violence toward physicians and nurses: prevalence and correlates in Macau. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2017. [cited 2019 August 12]. Available from: https://bit.ly/2U9iLUS.
13. Puengprasert S, Saoraya J, Luecha P, Sukpongtha S, Suwanwichai C. Guideline for preventing workplace violence in hospital. 2nd ed. Nonthaburi: Department of Medical Services.; 2018. [in Thai]
14. Patcharatanasan, N, Lertmaharit S. The Preva-lence characteristics and related factors of workplace violence in healthcare workers in emergency departments of government hospitals in Region 6 Health Provider. J Prev Med Assoc Thai. 2018;8:212-25. [in Thai]
15. Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University. Strategic plan for management, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, B.E. 2561-2564. Khon Kaen: Khon Kaen University; 2018. [in Thai]
16. Chirawatkul S. Qualitative research in health science. 2nd ed. Bangkok: Witthayaphat; 2010. [in Thai]
17. Abdellah RF, Salama KM. Prevalence and risk factors of workplace violence against health care workers in emergency department in Ismailia, Egypt. Pan Afr Med J [Internet]. 2017. [cited 2019 August 12]. Available from: https://bit.ly/39gHoDK.
18. Kowalenko T, Gates D, Gillespie GL, Succop P, Mentzel TK. Prospective study of violence against ED workers. Am J Emerg Med. 2013; 31:197–205.
19. Kvas A, Seljak J. Unreported workplace violence in nursing. Int Nurs Rev. 2014;61:344–51.
20. United States. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Guidelines for preventing workplace violence for health-care and social-service workers. Washington, D.C.: OSHA; 2016.
21. Kowalenko T, Cunningham R, Sachs CJ, Gore R, Barata IA, Gates D, et al. Workplace violence in emergency medicine: current knowledge and future directions. J Emerg Med. 2012;43: 523–31.
22. Thammanutham J, Pinsuwan S, Khunkitti K, Wittayapipath T, Towsakul N, Chaiear N, et al. Nursing practitioners’ opinions on international guideline for preventing workplace violence. Khon Kaen: Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University; 2017. [in Thai]
23. Wiskow C. Guidelines on workplace violence in the health sector. Geneva: International Labour Office; 2003.
24. Boston-Fleischhauer C, Herleth A, Langr M. A call to action on point-of-care violence in hospitals and health systems. J Nurs Adm. 2019;49:116–7.
25. Morphet J, Griffiths D, Beattie J, Innes K. Managers’ experiences of prevention and management of workplace violence against health care staff: a descriptive exploratory study. J Nurs Manag. 2019;27:781–91.